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Who was Khnum? The oldest and most important deities in the Egyptian pantheon are often the most mysterious and lacking in scholarly information. They are old – so old - that they’re veiled in a mist of ancient mysteries that accompanies such great age. From the earliest developments of the Egyptian civilization in the Nile’s valleys – going back several thousand years – these chief deities shaped the emerging culture of Egypt. One such god is Khnum – the great potter and creator of people and the chief deity of the source of the Nile .
As such, Khnum became one of the most important and revered gods of ancient Egyptians. His worship was directly related to the fertility and abundance that the flooding of the Nile brought. Join us today as we try to uncover the deeper character of Khnum – The Divine Potter – and attempt to get deeper into the mysteries that follow this enigmatic deity.
The Age and Importance of Khnum
Khnum has the distinction of being one of the earliest known Egyptian deities. His name and invocations mentioning him were discovered in some of the earliest ancient Egyptian monuments and writings. His role was equally important – he was considered the god of the source of the Nile, and as we all know, the Nile was the pulsating heart of the entire ancient Egyptian civilization . To be connected with it, Khnum truly had to have been immensely revered and have ascended to the very top of the pantheon.
The annual flooding of the Nile was the biggest life bringing event for the ancient Egyptians. The flooding brought fertility to the Nile valleys, leaving silt and clay in its wake, and a flourishing of crops and vegetation. As the Egyptians always connected these natural occurrences with life and abundance and fertility, so did they ascribe these events to Khnum.
Furthermore, Khnum was envisioned as having the role of a “divine potter”. The role given to this god was one of creation – he is said to form humans in their child form, on a potter’s wheel, from the rich clay of the Nile’s flooding. He place the formed beings in the wombs of mothers and life would spring forth thanks to his work.
Khnum forming humans on his potter’s wheel. ( Canadian Museum of History )
The name Khnum – in Ancient Egyptian “ ẖnmw” – comes from the root word meaning “to join”; “to unite”, and another root word that has the meaning “to build”. This makes Khnum’s name fairly obvious and consistent with his role as a builder and creator. He was not only the creator of human life in the form of children, but also the creator of the universe, the gods, and mankind, in various different interpretations through the history of the ancient Egyptian civilization.
Khnum was believed to have created the “first egg of the world”, and to have made the bodies of the first gods and men on his potter’s wheel from clay. Several historic inscriptions name Khnum as the creator of both aspects of human life in Egyptian belief. These were the body ( khat) and the life force ( ka), which Khnum combined and created on his potter’s wheel. Thus he created life.
Seven forms of Khnum are mentioned, combined with his role as the creator of the universe. These are:
Khnum Neb – “the Lord”
Khnum Khenti per-ankh – “Governor of the House of Life”
Khnum Khenti -Taui – “Governor of the Two Lands”
Khnum Nehep – “The Creator”
Khnum Sekhet ashsep -f – “Weaver of His Light”
Khnum Khenti netchemtchem ankhet – “Governor of the House of Sweet Life”
Khnum Neb -ta-ankhtet – “Lord of the Land of Life”
Khnum is the central figure on this sacred boat. (Alicia McDermott)
As a predominantly life-bringing god and a water deity, Khnum was most often portrayed as a ram headed man, as the ancient Egyptians believed that rams symbolized fertility. Most art portrayals show him seated behind a potter’s wheel, or standing with a jar from which he pours water – symbolizing the flooding of the Nile.
There are also several examples of Khnum portrayed with four ram’s heads, as a sort of hybrid amalgamation of the elements of earth, fire, air, water, and also the four life forces ( ka’s) of Osiris, Ra, Shu, and Geb. Shu and Geb were also important, primordial Egyptian deities, and this amalgamation clearly shows how important Khnum was as a creator deity. This four-headed representation is known as Sheft-Hat, the Great Primeval Force.
God with four ram heads facing in four directions, probably Khnum. ( CC0)
The Flooding of the Nile and Salvation from Khnum
Khnum is a god that controlled the so-called “doors” of the Nile, and as such controlled the annual flood at his own wish. But what happens when nature steps in and messes things up for the believers? So it happened that during a period in the Egypt’s 3rd Dynasty the Nile didn’t flood for seven consecutive years, causing extensive droughts and famine. This happened during the rule of the famed pharaoh Djoser.
This famine – an actual historic event – was preserved in a myth and inscribed on an artifact known as the “Famine Stele”, located on Sehel Island in the Nile, near Aswan. It was carved during the Ptolemaic Kingdom. It tells how the Pharaoh Djoser , seeking to save the land from the seven years of famine, implores his high priest Imhotep to discover the birth place of Hapi, god of the Nile.
Imhotep then travels to the so-called House of Nets, at Hermopolis, and discovers that the flooding of the Nile is controlled by Khnum himself.
In the myth, it is described in detail how Khnum is the one controlling the great “doors” that allow the flooding of the Nile. It is stated that Khnum resides on Elephantine Island in the Nile, and that Djoser decides to travel there. Once there, in the temple of Khnum – the “Joy of Life” – Djoser is purified, and offers “all good things” to Khnum. He then falls asleep, and is greeted by a vision of Khnum, who says to him:
“I am Khnum, the Creator. My hands rest upon thee to protect thy person, and to make sound thy body. I gave thee thine heart…I am he who created himself. I am the primeval watery abyss, and I am the Nile who riseth at his will to give health for me to those who toil. I am the guide and director of all men, the Almighty, the father of the gods.”
In this vision Khnum promises Djoser that the Nile will flood once more, and continue to do so, as long as Djoser rebuilds the ruined temple of Khnum on Elephantine Island. Once Djoser rebuilt the temple, the drought ceased, and annual flooding occurred once more, ending the famine. This important inscription clearly shows us that the ancient Egyptians connected Khnum with the flooding of the Nile, and clearly sought salvation through him.
This event also shows a large rise in wealth and influence of both Djoser and the Temple of Khnum, to which the pharaoh dedicated a swath of land between Aswan and Tachompso, and all of its wealth and income, as well as a share of imports from Nubia. It remains a matter of debate whether this was an occurrence during Djoser’s reign, or simply a later myth that served to solidify the influence of the Priests of Khnum over Elephantine Island. Historically, there is a mention of a seven year drought and famine, but during the late 2nd Dynasty and the rule of Pharaoh Neferkasokar.
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Worshipping the Weaver of His Light
Later on, Khnum’s role as a divine creator, and more precisely a builder, became used more and more in pharaonic inscriptions. Some stories tell us how Khnum visited Egypt in disguise and helped with the birth of three children, destined to become great kings. His role in the birth was to give the children their health and ka – as a bringer of life.
Later inscriptions bring him into connection with the divine origin of pharaohs, most likely utilized to emphasize the ruler’s power and influence. Examples include Khnum crafting the royal body of a pharaoh and his ka on the potter’s wheel. These scenes are always taking place in a celestial realm, signifying the divine origin of a pharaoh.
Undoubtedly the main place of worship for Khnum was located exactly on Elephantine Island. The great temple there was dedicated chiefly to Khnum, his consort Satis, and their daughter Anuket. These three deities were known as the Elephantine Triad. Satis was essentially a female counterpart of Khnum. She was a goddess of fertility and the flooding of the Nile as well and the protective deity of Egypt’s south borders.
On the right of this image you see King Amenhotep I making an offering of ointment jars to Amen-Re‘ (here depicted as having a ram's head), Khnum, Satet and Anuket who are all enthroned behind a similar altar. (Trustees of the British Museum/ CC BY NC SA 4.0 )
Anuket, their daughter, was the goddess of lower Nubia, and of the Cataracts of the Nile. These were shallow, whitewater rapids and the shallowest parts of the Nile.
The temple of Khnum on Elephantine Island was the largest and occupied the entire southern tip. Along with the smaller temple of Satet, it is documented as far back as 3,000 years.
Another crucial temple of Khnum is located at modern Esna, or ancient Latopolis – a majestic building with great preservation. It is located 55 kilometers (34.18 miles) south of Luxor. Latopolis was named in honor of a fish – the Nile Perch, which was held sacred by the ancient Egyptians as a symbol of another creator deity – the goddess Neith. Numerous Nile perch mummies were discovered in cemeteries west of the town. Khnum’s temple here is among the best preserved today, and without a doubt one of the prettiest - perfectly capturing the craftsmanship and attention to detail of the ancient Egyptian craftsmen.
The temple of Khnum, Esna - wall carving shows Khnum and Menhit. ( CC BY SA 3.0 )
The Breath of Life for Pharaohs
Returning to the role of Khnum as the bringer of life and creator of pharaohs, we can see his importance in the myth of Hatshepsut’s birth. Hatshepsut was the fifth pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt, and the second historical female pharaoh. The myth of her birth says that she was a daughter of Amen-Ra, a form of god Amon.
Amen-Ra, disguised as pharaoh Thutmose I (Hatshepsut’s father), visits her mother, touches her nose with his ankh symbol, and conceives Hatshepsut. Amen-Ra then calls for Khnum, and tells him to “fashion for him the body of his daughter and her ka”. He goes on to say that he shall make his daughter “a great queen, and honor and power shall be worthy of her dignity and glory”. Khnum then
“fashioned the body of Amen-Ra's daughter and the body of her ka, the two forms exactly alike and more beautiful than the daughters of men. He fashioned them of clay with the air of his potter's wheel and Heqet, goddess of birth, knelt by his side holding the sign of life towards the clay that the bodies of Hatshepsut and her ka might be filled with the breath of life.”
This important legend is preserved in Hatshepsut’s Mortuary Temple , and once again places Khnum in an important role as a creator of divine life.
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As a water deity, Khnum was also mentioned several times as a protector of the Waters of the Underworld, and through this as the protector of the dead. In several paintings he is depicted as a falcon with the head of a ram, in one of his amalgamations with Ra, when he was known as Khnum-Ra and symbolized the night – which is the Soul of Ra passing through the underworld. In this way, the ancient Egyptians doubled the power of Ra, which was often done by combining the sun disk of Ra with other chief deities, giving them new roles.
Note the Khnum figure with the solar disk on it’s head at the front of the sacred boat. Chapel of Amun-Ra, Temple of Seti I, Abydos. (kairoinfo4u/ CC BY NC SA 2.0 )
In Unison With Nature
Khnum presents us with a very important glimpse into the complexity and richness of the ancient Egyptian pantheon and the beliefs surrounding it. With such a vital connection to the nature around them, the Egyptians managed to create a rich world of beliefs, myths, hundreds upon hundreds of deities, and a religious system that surpassed any other during the era.
The stories of Khnum also show us just how dependent they were on the land around them, on the Nile and the floods it brought, and that all of their deities are in a way a facet of the natural lives of men.
The God Khnum
Khnum is one of the ancient Egyptian gods who had been worshiped many years before the Pyramid Texts and was worshiped many centuries after Christ but there is no accurate reference for the period of his worship in any of the ancient books. In the early years of his worship, Khnum was not regarded as a creator but after gaining more popularity and power he was regarded as the creator of the whole universe. Khnum was the head of the Triad of Elephantine Island of Phiala Island accompanied by his wife Satis that was known as "the dispenser of cool water coming from Elephantine" her water was used for purifying the dead and her sister Anuket that was known as the goddess of Lust. The usual depiction of Khnum is a ram-headed man with a scepter and an ankh in his hand. His head was always topped either with the crown of Upper Egypt with its plums, disk or cobra, or with a pot of water over the horns of the ram as a symbol for the Nile.
The worship of Khnum centred on two principal riverside sites, Elephantine Island and Esna, which were regarded as sacred sites. At Elephantine, he was worshipped alongside Anuket and Satis as the guardian of the source of the River Nile. His significance led to early theophoric names of him, for children, such as Khnum-khufwy – Khnum is my Protector, the full name of Khufu, builder of the Great Pyramid. [ 1 ]
Khnum has also been related to the deity Min. [ 2 ]
Egyptian Gods: Khnum
Khnum is an ancient Egyptian god who was the God of the Nile inundation from Elephantine where he guarded the first cataract. Khnum name also spelled as Chnum, Knum, or Khnemu and he is one of the oldest Egyptian gods. He is also known as Chnoumis in Greek and his name ‘Khnum’ means “builder”.
His name Khnum means to create, so he was referred as a creator god. He moulds people out of mud from the Nile on a potter’s wheel, Ra shine upon them by his life giving ray, and later placed them in their mothers’ womb. He was called “the Great Potter”.
Khnum appearance portrayed as a ram headed man and holding scepter and the ankh in his hand. Sometimes, he also depicted as a bull-headed man at a potter’s wheel.
In Elephantine, since Khnum was the god of the Nile, he was regarded as the husband of Satis (the Goddess of the Inundation) and the father of Anuket (the Goddess of the Nile). On the other hand, in Esna, due to his aspect as creator of the body, was regarded as the husband of Menhit (Lion-headed War Goddess) and the father of Heka (God of Magic and Medicine).
Khnum was recognized since Dynasty 3 and worshipped throughout Nubia and Egypt. His cult centers were built in Elephantine, Sunnu, Abu, Philae and Semnut.
Khnum, god of Egypt
Khnum , god of Egypt
Discover the legends and myths and religious beliefs surrounding Khnum, the Egyptian creator ram-headed god of fertility, water and procreation, the patron of potters, the annual inundation of the Nile and of the Nile cataracts (white water rapids) He was also a protector of the Dead, and a protector of Ra on the solar barque. The ancient god Khnum, pronounced 'kan-noom', was usually depicted with a distinctive head of a ram with strange, horizontal, twisted horns. Once common in Egypt, this species of ram is now extinct. According to ancient Egyptian mythology Khnum fashioned human children from straw and clay upon a potter's wheel and gave him his soul (Ka). In the ancient Egyptian language the words "soul" and "ram" sounded the same, explaining the significance of the ram as the symbol of Khnum.
Who was Khnum?
Khnum was the Egyptian god of fertility, water and procreation. Egyptian gods and goddesses closely resembled the appearance of humans, but many of their gods, as with Khnum, were also perceived as 'human hybrids' depicted with human bodies with the heads of animals. These symbols were used as a recognition aid and a device to visually convey the powers, identity and attributes of the god.
Facts about Khnum
The following facts and profile provides a fast overview of Khnum:
Khnum in Egyptian Mythology
Khnum, the Egyptian god of fertility, water and procreation, featured in the stories, myths and legends in Egyptian Mythology. Khnum was one of the old cosmic gods described as "the maker of things which are, the creator of things which shall be, the source of created things, the father of fathers, and the mother of mothers." It was Khnum who, according to one legend, fashioned the children of man upon a potter's wheel made from clay and straw.
The Consorts of Khnum
Khnum was worshipped in cities throughout Upper and Lower Egypt and their were many cults dedicated to this god. Ancient Egyptian Cities that achieved the status of a cult center became extremely rich and powerful and therefore there were several cult centers who featured Khnum with a number of different consorts who were goddesses favored in particular locations. He was associated with Heket a frog-headed fertility goddess but more often he was linked with Neith a war goddess, Menhit (a lion-headed war goddess) and Satet also another war goddess.
Khnum the Protector
Khnum had roles of a protector of the Dead, the protector of the source of the Nile, and a protector of Ra on the solar barque and his protective roles were possibly the reasons why he was associated with so many war goddesses.
Khnum Cult - The Elephantine Triad
Khnum was a member of the Elephantine Triad consisting of Khnum, Satet the war goddess of the Nile inundation and their daughter Anuket, the goddess of the cataracts. For additional information refer to the Triads of Egyptian Gods.
Khnum Cult - The Triad of Latopolis
In another cult Khnum was the consort of Neith the goddess of war whose offspring was Heka the god of magic who together formed the the Triad of Latopolis.
Khnum believed to be fashioning the divine child Heka on a potter's wheel
Khnum, god of Fertility and Procreation
The fertility aspect of Khnum as the god of procreation (reproduction) is reflected in his role of moulding the infant and its ka within the womb, giving it the breath of life and then maintaining the health of the infant child after birth.
Khnum in Egyptian Mythology - The Soul
Khnum was therefore credited with providing man with the part of the soul called the 'Ka'. The ancient Egyptians called the soul by two names - the Ka and the Ba. The Ka was believed to be the life-force of a person. Khnum is mentioned in a version of the Book of the Dead called the Papyrus of Ani. In this famous papyrus Khnum is mentioned in Ani's address to his heart.
"Thou art my ka, the dweller in my body the god Khnemu who knitteth and strengtheneth my limbs.
Mayest thou come forth into the place of happiness whither we go."
The deceased, in mentioning Khnemu's name (also spelled Khnum), appears to be invoking his aid at the judgment in the Hall of Truths as he was the fashioner of man and the being who was responsible in some respects for the manner of his life upon earth.
Symbols of Khnum - The Ram Headed God
The most striking symbol of Khnum is the ram. He is depicted in ancient Egyptian Art as a ram-headed god with green skin. Green colored skin was the color of vegetation and symbolized new life, rebirth and regeneration. Khnum is credited with giving man his soul (Ka) and in the language of the ancient Egyptians the words "soul" and "ram" sounded the same, which explains the significance of the ram as the symbol of Khnum. The peculiar, twisted horizontal horns, with spiralling horns coming out of the sides of the skull, as depicted on Khnum are like nothing we would now associate with a ram. The Latin name of the type of ram depicted is the 'Ovis longipes palaeo-aegyptiacus'. It is now extinct. But it was a type of barbary sheep that was found in the ancient Southern Egypt and Nubia. This species of ram, a domesticated sheep, was depicted on the relief's of the early tombs of Pharaohs.
The Latopolis Triad at Esna
Esna was the cult center of the Triad of Latopolis consisting of Khnum, Neith and their son Heka where a great temple of was dedicated to the worship of these gods. Heka was the patron of magic and therefore also of medicine and Neith was a warrior goddess. Another lion-headed goddess called Menhit was also associated with the triad as the second wife of Khnum.
The Elephantine Triad & Elephantine Island
Elephantine is situated at Aswan standing at the border between Egypt and Nubia and was the cult center for the three gods Khnum, Satet the war goddess of the flood or inundation and their daughter Anuket, the goddess of the cataracts. Elephantine was the capital of the state and for many years was the outer post of the Ancient Egyptian empire, a military post guarding the southern frontier of Egypt. A great great fortification was built on the island which served as defensive role for the border of Egypt but also as a place for commerce and trade with the Nubians, which might account for the name 'Elephantine' as there was a brisk trade in ivory at the island. The Egyptian Nile god, Hapi was also worshipped at Elephantine as he was believed to bring the silt to the banks of the Nile. Khnum was believed to guard and control the waters of the Nile from caves beneath Elephantine Island. Important Nilometers were located on the Elephantine Island to predict the volume and measure the inundation of the Nile. A Nilometer was associated with the Temple of Satis, with a stone staircase that descends down the corridor. There are records of an Egyptian temple dedicated to Khnum on the Elephantine island as early as the third Dynasty of Egypt in the period of the Old Kingdom (2686 BC - 2181 BC). The Khnum temple on the island was completely rebuilt in the Late Period (525 BC - 332 BC), during the thirtieth dynasty of Egypt, just before the foreign rule of the Romans.
Khnum – Ancient Egypt’s Lord of the Land of Life - History
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Deep within the shifting sands of the Gobi Desert lies the elusive Olgoi-Khorkhoi, the Mongolian Death Worm – or so legend has it.
What do you think the Mongolian Death Worm was/is? Do you know of any creature on which it could be based? What could have inspired the legend?
And this from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mongolian_death_worm -- “In 1983 a specimen of Tartar sand boa (Eryx tataricus) was shown to locals who claimed to have seen ‘olgoi-khorkhoi’ and they confirmed that this was the animal they called ‘olgoi-khorkhoi’.”
(Click on the ‘Eryx tataricus’ link in the ‘death worm’ article, and you will be taken to the ‘Eryx miliaris’ article.)
Unless some more evidence turns up the sand boa seems the most likely candidate. The allegations as to how poisinous it was or now it could ace like an electric land eel are likely exaggerations
On the other hand the locals could just have been agreeing in order to pleas the interviewers or just ge them to go away.
This is good information, especially with confirmation from locals. The snake does not appear anything like the death worm descriptions though. I wonder why that is so.
Were alien anthropologists to visit the American South, presenting an actual rabbit and fox to locals and asking whether these were the creatures titled “Br’er” in certain regional stories, likely they would also be told “Yes”… and possibly they also would wonder why the real animals did not behave as in the stories. Their puzzlement might recur in the Pacific Northwest if they presented a large black bird to local tribes concerning old trickster legends — or likewise in the American Southwest if they did the same with a coyote.
Myths grow around symbols, such as familiar local animals.
Cf. hoop snake, joint snake, snow snake — fictional behavior, all.
They have Br'er Rabbit stories in South America? I read African Folk tales containing Br'er Rabbit Stories.
I haven't seen or read a Br'er Rabbit story in quite sometime that's why I asked about them in South America.
I took a online Native American Children's library class and was introduced to an Children's Book, I believe Blue Coyote?
He wanted to fly. Personally I think the storyline was mean.
Getting back to the Mongolian Death Worm I know that this is an obvious question but, has anyone asked the Mongolians to maybe draw what these Death Worms might look like?
If they come back with that Desert Boa then okay, but, if they wind up drawing something else then those Worms must be out there.
The one place on the Planet I never want to go for a vacation is Australia.
That continent is a Death Trap.
There are so many ways to die in Australia, reminds me TV Death series on Spike TV 1000 ways to die, it is incredulous.
There's the frightening Funnel Spider that doesn't drown in Water, Venomous Snakes, The Bird Spider also Venomous, vicious Ants not kidding those things attack, Crocodiles.
That's just on the Land of Australia, then in the Ocean Great White Sharks in the Rivers Bull-Sharks, Saltwater Crocodiles, Deadliest Water on the planet.
All of that pales in comparison to when I learned of Australia's Beaches there are a species of Worms known as "Sandworms".
I'm not kidding I saw photographs of those Sandworms and yeah never going to Australia unless of course My God tells me too.
Then I found out Watching from Animal Planet about a very, very, scary worm it's called a Bobbit Worm the The Kanduri in South America, would be breakfast to this Worm species.
At one time scientist weren't aware this thing existed.
Once people began getting Tanks containing Coral Reef's one of the item's in The Tank began moving around from its original Spot, usually at night.
One day the animal The Bobbit Worm popped up and it was an enormous size Worm with seemingly protruding trap like jaws for its mouth to consume fish.
It has two eyes but it usually depends on Its mandible to catch Fish with this Worm could take your hand off as of yet haven't ascertained if it's Venomous.
I apologize but, I can't remember how long the Worm itself was but it was about the length of the Tank it was in, the length of this Worm's body astounded me.
Far as I'm concerned that creature is out of a horror movie and it's possible that The Mongolian Death Worm maybe a distant relative of this very Worm in the Coral Tank.
This is why I can't declare the Mongolian Death Worm a Myth as of yet. I would have thought mistakenly The Coral Reef Worm was a Myth.
That's all I have to say about the Subject on The Death Worm's. I'm a bit upset to know that South America, has Br'er Rabbit Stories all those Library Classes I took they should of taught about that.
So until Next Time Raven, I enjoyed your discussion I'll say Goodbye!
You know my favorite hokey Science Fiction movie series is Tremor's. A storyline developed by Universal Studios made in 1988-1989, released on the big screen in1990.
Hey it's really packed with some really good comedic action scenes.
After the first movie a whole slew of hokey follow up's to the First Movie was made and no matter the subject matter Tremor's always gets me laughing.
I suppose these Tremor Movies are a lot like The Mongolian Death Worms capable as the article explained of grabbing unsuspecting Camel's, maybe Mongolian Horses and a occasional human prey to whatever animal there is Food is food.
To often people in the past have insulted other cultures, other people's history related to their land where They and their Ancestors has flourished for year's.
The stories of Dragon's, Wyverns, Giant's, and Ogres are declared Fantasies with the case of the Mongolian Death Worm they are merely a mirage in the desert.
I think relatively that people know what is going on in their own backyards so Mongolians speak of Death Worms? This means for me I won't be visiting the Mongolian Desert anytime soon.
I think the question as to why The Mongolians has seen them and we haven't perhaps we are not suppose to see them.
As for where these Mongolian Death Worms originate they could be a left over of some Ancient Civilizations experiment? Possible scenarios for where these Death Worms came from here's a few I thought of.
Perhaps Mongolia was at one point apart of Eden maybe the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil was planted there and since it was the source of Sin The Death Worms was a result of Adam and Eve eating from that Forbidden Tree.
God did say if the first parent's ate of that Tree They would Surely die, apparently, Death has many forms to ensnare its victim's.
In reminiscent over those Hokey Tremor Movies I like so much has the Mongolians made known and sure fire way of killing These Death Worms? Or is it yet to be discovered?
I guess this is all I have to share about The Mongolian Death Worms but, if I think of something else then I'll come on back here and share it, so until next time, Everyone at least for now, Goodbye!
Egyptian Gods: Osiris
Osiris was the God of the Dead and Vegetation. He is also called in various names and spelling such as Usiris, Oser, Usire, Asar, Aser, Ausar, Ausir, Wesir or Ausare and usually referred as god of Afterlife. Osiris is one of the oldest gods of all the Egyptian Gods. He is just not the ruler of the underworld, but also the god of resurrection into eternal life, protector, inundation and vegetation.
Osiris appearance portrayed as man wearing a tall white crown with red feathers at both side of the crown and his body wrapped in white mummy wrappings. His skin is green or black in color symbolizes resurrection and fertility flooding of the Nile River. He holds the crook and flail which signified divine authority. He was represented as a mummified king.
According to the myth, Osiris is the son of Nut (sky goddess) and Geb (earth god), brother of Set and Nephthys. He is also the brother and husband of Isis and the father of Horus and Anubis. He was the king of Egypt, until he was murdered by his jealousy brother Set. Osiris was resurrected and made to live again but he could no longer dwell in the land of the living, he then became the Lord of the Dead in the Underworld. His death was avenge by his son Horus, who defeated Set and cast him out into the desert.
Osiris was the most widely worshipped god throughout Egypt and his cult temple was built at Abydos. Throughout Egyptian history, there were alot of prayers was done for Osiris, hopes to get his blessing and entering the afterlife. There are several festivals during the year were held in Egypt, in celebration of Osiris.
The Egyptian Creation Epic
In the beginning there was only the Nun: the great celestial waters of the Unmanifest the depths of the nighttime sky. Swimming within this primordial Deep were the mighty Ogdoad: eight Gods who consisted of four Serpents, and four Frogs. There names were Nun and Nunet, deities of the watery abyss Heh and Hehet, deities of infinite space Kek and Keket, deities of darkness and Amon and Amonet, deities of the invisible. These primordial Gods swam within the Waters, guarding the Great Egg that incubated the Creator.
In time, the Egg began to hatch. It split into two halves, dividing the waters of the Nuninto the upper and lower, and making between them a space wherein the Creator could fashion the world.
From the Egg arose a single blue Lotus. It rose high above the darkness of the abyss, and opened it's great petals. Within it's golden heart rested a beautiful young God, the Creator Amen-Re, with one single finger pressed against His lips in Silence.
Light streamed from the body of this Divine Child, banishing darkness to the far reaches of the universe. Like a phoenix with flaming plumage He arose, uttering a cry that shattered the eternal silence. This was the first sound- the first Word- and that Word manifested as a living God. Thoth was His name: the Self-Created, the Logos, Wisdom.
Amon-Re then constructed an island for Himself to rest upon, and He surveyed the expanse of water around Him. He knew that He was alone, and soon found He could not bear the solitude. He longed for others to share the Light with Him.
Thus, He began his creation. In this He is known as Khephera, the God of Creation, the God of the Rising Sun. He brought order to the chaotic Ogdoad- setting Them in Their proper places- and it was thus the world came into existence. He accomplished this through the mighty power of the Divine Word, Thoth, and that power was yet another God: Ptah, the architect of the world and all of its creatures.
The first to be created was the Great Goddess Maat Justice, Truth, the Judge and Balance of Dualities for, duality is the law of the universe. Thoth took Her as His wife, and the two sustain the universe even unto this day the Divine Word and Truth.
And more were created, in Their turn, by the thoughts of Amen-Re. He empowered Them with His word- by naming Them. First among Them were Shu, the God of Air, and Tefnut, the Goddess of Moisture.
Yet, Shu and Tefnut were quickly lost to Re in the waters of the abyss, and He was once again alone. He therefore took an Eye from His face and filled it with His own power. He called the Eye his daughter, Hathor, Goddess of the Sky, and sent Her out into the darkness to find His children.
The light of Hathor pierced the forces of darkness and Shu and Tefnut were quickly found and returned to Their Father. As a reward, Re set the Eye upon His brow in the form of the Great Cobra, the Uraeus Serpent. He swore an oath to Her that She would ever have power over His enemies, and in ages to come both Gods and men would fear Her.
Now Shu and Tefnut loved each other, and in time Tefnut gave birth to twins. The eldest was Geb, God of the Earth. The younger was Nut, Goddess of the Heavens. Re took the Star Goddess Nut for His wife, yet it was Geb for whom She yearned. It was Geb that She moved toward. The Earth and Sky, entangled in love, were intermixed and chaotic. The universe was formless as if rebelling against order.
Re, unaware, stumbled upon this union of Geb and Nut. Angered at his unfaithful wife, He forced the lovers apart. He pulled the Sky far above the Earth, and held Them distant by force. He then set Shu between the lovers, upholding Nut in Her place to keep Them forever apart. It was thus that the Air came to reside between Sky and Earth.
Though Re's wrath against His wife was not yet complete. He further decreed that Nut, impregnated by Her union with Geb, should never give birth to Her young in any month of any year. Instead, They were to be locked within Her, never to see the light of day.
Nut mourned for Her loss the loss of both Her lover and Her unborn children. Her lamentations reached even unto the ears of Thoth, the Self Created. He rushed to Her side, and dried Her tears. He soothed Her and spoke with Her, discovering the pain which inflicted Her. Thoth, who was the Lord of all magick and spells, knew that Re's decree could not be undone. Yet, he knew also that there was a way in which to relieve great Nut of Her suffering.
To this end, Thoth created the game of draughts, and challenged the Moon Goddess Silene whose light then rivaled that of the sun. Thoth convinced Her to gamble a seventieth part of Her light for each day of the year. Being the Lord of Wisdom, He easily won from Her this light, and to this day the moon dwindles and darkens at certain periods. Thoth pieced together the light he had won- enough to fashion five whole days- and added them to the end of the 360-day lunar year.
These days did not rest within any month, nor any year, and thus Nut was able to bear Her children, one on each day. On the first was born Osiris. As he came into the World a Great Voice was heard throughout the heavens proclaiming that the Lord of Creation was born.
On the second day was born the great Elder Horus, whose right eye is the sun, and left eye the Moon. The Sky Goddess' name, Hathor, literally means "The Abode of Horus."
On the third day was born dark Set, the Lord of warfare and the burning deserts.
On the fourth day was born Isis, Goddess of Love, Magick, and Wisdom. The Great Lady of the heavens. Osiris took Her as His wife, and there was great love between Them.
Finally, on the fifth day, was born Isis' beloved sister Nephthys. The dark aspect of Her sister, She was taken by Set as His wife, but there was never love between Them at all. She, instead, remained always loyal to Her sister.
And thus is the birth of the Great Shining Ones, the Company of the Gods of Annu. They are the Ennead, the Great Company of Gods: Re His children Shu and Tefnut, His grandchildren Geb and Nut, and His great-grandchildren Osiris, Isis, Set, and Nephthys. Many other Gods were also created by Re and He filled the sky above the earth, and the abyss below it with spirits, demons, and lesser Deities.
Last of all was created Man and the other creatures of the earth. The mighty Khnem'u fashioned them upon His potter's wheel, and Re breathed into them the breath of life. Further, He made a land for them to dwell within, and named the kingdom Khemet (Egypt).
He protected the land with great barriers of desert, and created the river Nile so that it's waters would flood the land and rich crops would be plentiful. He also made other countries, and for them he created a Nile in the sky that would rain down its waters and sustain their life. He populated the world with all forms of animal, bird, fish, and plant and gave them also the breath of life.
Each day Re walks through His kingdom, or sails across the sky in His Barque of Millions of Years (that is- the Ship of Eternity). To restrain the forces of darkness and chaos, He created the kingship He then established Himself as the first and greatest King of Egypt and reigned for countless centuries in joy and peace.
But, alas, every evening the great primordial Lotus closes it's petals and sinks once more into the waters of the abyss. Darkness reigns throughout the Night until the young God within the Lotus is reborn. The forces of darkness were not conquered forever at the beginning of time instead they surrounded the earth as serpents poised to attack the Sun God. The war between darkness and light sustains the world and when it comes to a final end, so too will the world.
Here are the chosen gods whose worship has radiated to many cities, dynasties and theological concepts (the list is obviously not exhaustive). Practically each of the following gods could, in the belief of his worshiper, be the creator of the world and the source of other gods:
The god of the moon, wisdom, writing and counting portrayed as a man with the head of an ibis, often with a brush for writing and a palette in his hands.
Moon god and time lord depicted as an ibis, baboon or human with the head of these animals. Considered a magazine inventor, he became a writer’s guardian. He was also considered the creator of the calendar. Priests from the city of Hermopolis saw him as the creator of the entire cosmos and gods.
Depicted in the form of a man with a crown of pharaohs on his head. In the theology of the city of Heliopolis, he was described as a pre-threshold: the first hill emerged from the ancient Ocean.
He sun god in Heliopolis, later identified with the god Thebes Amon (Amon-Ra) a man with the head of a falcon and with a solar disk.
God of the Sun. His head is decorated with a solar disk. Priests of the city of Heliopolis – combined his worship with the earlier worship of the god Amon. He made pairs with many gods. He was the sun that shone at noon, the owner of a barge that all the gods sail in the sky (that is, inside the goddess Nut) every day from east to west from the land of life to the land of the dead. They sailed to revive themselves and the world of the next day, maintain the order of the cosmos personified in the form of the goddess Maat.
Originally the creator god and god of the dead in Memphis depicted in the form of a mummy with an open head, with a rod standing on a hieroglyph meaning the truth.
A symbol of fertility, a god in the form of a bull with a solar disk in some periods Apis was revered as a god who embodied the soul of Osiris.
Depicted as a man with a shaved head, with a scepter in his hand. In Memphis he was considered the creator god of the whole world by the power of thought and word. His holy animal was the bull Apis.
A god in the image of a jackal or wild dog (or a person with the head of a jackal or dog) considered the patron saint of the dead.
God of the dead. His holy animal was a black dog (probably also mistakenly considered a jackal). Anubis helped Osiris in the world of the dead, where he x-rayed the thoughts of man.
God of the sun depicted in the form of a solar disk, the rays of which ended with open palms.
The solar disk identified with the early reflection of the solar god. He appeared during the eighteenth dynasty one of her pharaohs, in love with Aton, took the name Akhenaten (meaning “useful to Aton”), founded a new religious capital for all of Egypt, and began persecuting the worship of other gods. Some religious experts see in this event the birth of monotheism – the first in the history of humanity.
The goddess of love and fate, the goddess of heaven, the nurse of the pharaohs and the ruler of distant lands portrayed as a cow or woman with cow horns.
The goddess of the sky and the personification of the Great Mother, most often depicted in two forms: a woman with a sun disk on her head between the horns or as a cow. She was the eye of Horus and the eye of Re, the tears that made a man. The guardian of women giving birth and the Tree of Life after death. The wives of the pharaohs identified with her. Other goddesses, such as Maat, Isis, Nut, Sachmet, Bastet, Neit, Seszat, and Mut took over her features. As the goddess Uto-Wadzet (attacking cobra), she was the rays of the sun: life-giving and deadly, which was symbolized by ureusz (the sign of the serpent), worn on the forehead by the rulers.
Ruler of the world of the dead and their judge, often depicted in the form of a mummy. Every Egyptian wanted to identify with him after death to take over his power of resurrection (Osiris was killed by the god Set, and other gods resurrected with the help of the goddess Isis).
Patron of the city of Thebes, god of air and harvest, creator of the world portrayed in the form of a man (sometimes with a ram’s head) with a scepter and in a crown, with two high feathers and a solar disk.
A god with blue skin and a head decorated with two feathers. In his hands he holds a whip and a sign of life anch. Its importance has grown since the eleventh dynasty, when Thebes became the capital of Egypt. He maintained a high position for over 200 years, usually in the Amon-Re pair.
The god of heaven and light, the patron saint of the pharaohs, who were considered his earthly incarnation portrayed as a man with the head of a falcon in the crown.
Depicted as a falcon or a man with his head. He personified all of Egypt. The Pharaohs identified with Horus and adopted various names. The sun and moon were his eyes, hence the title Lord of Heaven. Pharaoh’s horus was usually surrounded by the goddesses Nechbet (vulture) and Wadzet (cobra), which symbolized the combined Upper and Lower Egypt and personified Hathor
Violent Lord of the Storm, lightning and desert. His holy animal was a strange quadruped (a combination of donkey-antelope-pig-dog). It was possible that he was the most important god of Egypt before the First Dynasty Horus dethroned him (messages about their fight are famous). Starting from the XXV Dynasty, he becomes the embodiment of evil, identified with the opponent of all the gods of Egypt and people – the serpent Apoptis. Meanwhile, he was previously depicted as standing in the barge Re and piercing the spear of the evil Apopis. It is possible that Seta was considered a god of foreigners, whose opinion was getting worse. There was a conviction that “Horus is the god of Egypt, and Set of all other nations.” He was to be the only god who would not die.
Goddess of love, joy, holidays woman with the head of a cat or lioness with a basket in her hands. Sometimes depicted simply in the form of a cat.
The spirit, the patron saint of women in labor, expelling the serpent, the god of fun and dancing portrayed as an ugly gnome with a muzzle of a lion.
The divine patron of architects, scribes, doctors it is symbolized by the sedentary figure of a scientist with an unfolded papyrus scroll on his lap.
Mother goddess, sister and wife of Osiris a woman with cow horns and a solar disk on her head, in her hand is a stalk of papyrus, protector of the world, depicted, like Hathor.
The god of the annually dying and reborn nature, later the god of the underworld and the judge of the dead portrayed as a human mummy in a crown framed by feathers, a beard, in a bent arms scepter and whip.
The creator god who creates man on the pottery disc, the keeper of the Nile man with the head of a ram with spirally twisted horns.
A god with a ram’s head who made people and gods on a potter’s wheel. Often combined with Re and other gods.
The Brillant Researchers
Corentin Louis Kervran 1901-1983
For example, to start gradually , the French passionate researcher and engineer, Corentin Louis Kervran, who demonstrated that under the effect of certain bacteria: granite is kaolinized : “it is replaced on one or several cm thick by a soft rock that can be cut with a knife without difficulty “. So even the hardest stone can be metamorphosed and softened! In 1959, Kervranexplains the result of certain observations by the fusion or fission of atoms, without detectable radioactivity, for living beings or in geology . He calls this change in the state of matter: biological transmutation, also known as cold nuclear transmutation or Kervran Effect.
In passing, it is interesting to note that in France this man of genius but very humble, was not really recognized, (Evident jealousies of small officials against him. Often great discoveries are buried or put to the benefit of others), but just see its Wikipedia in English or Russian and compare with the French version to see that! And many have had to be inspired by it without giving him any recognition since today geo-engineering uses micro-organisms to generate mutations in a material deemed “dead” (as for the Terra Preta of Brazil which is a land that self-generates without becoming impoverished).
Jean Marie Lehn French Chemist:
Then, the French Nobel Prize in Chemistry (in 1987): Jean-Marie Lehn who has defined a new field of chemistry: the supramolecular chemistry, which focuses on intermolecular forces and associations of different chemical species. He expanded his research to include catalysis and supramolecular transport processes , intermolecular attractions of what we would call “fragile objects”, such as micelles, polymers, or clays …
And, when we talk about polymers, geopolymers,we have the famous Professor Joseph Davidovits who has done an absolutely remarkable job, especially on the stone in Egypt, although he is also the prey like the others of heavy jealousies or professional incomprehension. (It is enough to see the shameless remarks on its wikipedia to have an idea). He is the inventor of the concept of geopolymer and geopolymerization chemistry . Specialist in Roman concretes, he has published hundreds of scientific articles and many patents. He is a specialist in the manufacture of artificial stone objects (hard stone vases) by the A ncient Egyptians. He founded the Institute of Applied Archaeological Sciences (IAPAS)in Miamito study ancient technology . He has made numerous experiments in his Institute of Geopolymers https://www.geopolymer.org proving that it is possible to obtain a very solid reagglomerated stone by a mixture poured into molds and which solidifies, between others: with limestone disintegrated in water mixed with a binder consisting of natronand lime.
Even if all the pyramid stones are not reconstituted concrete, according to my careful observation of more than twenty years, it makes for me no doubt that, much especially concerning the exterior seem to be what Davidovitsis advancing.
West face Khafra pyramid ©AntoineGigal-2017
So what are geopolymers? They are synthetic minerals, chemical stones … yes, you read it right. Let us not forget that nature itself realizes this , but on cycles of time very long of several million years, it is in fact re-agglomerated materials . From a natural eroded and protruding rock (whether limestone or some other type of hard rock), it can be transformed into a very hard stone by giving it a compact structure thanks to a binder . Davidovitsexplains why geologists do not see anything:
“This is due to the geological glue which, although artificial, is seen by geologists either as an impurity, hence unnecessary to study, or as a natural binder. At best, the analytical tools and the working methods of geologists take cement for a perfectly natural “micritic binder”. A geologist not trained in the chemistry of geopolymers will assert in good faith that the stones are natural.
Part of Irtysen Steal in the Louvre Museum
For Egypt the binder is a salt of natron (sodium carbonate) and we will see this in more detail with the evidence that the Ancient Egyptians left us as in the stele of Irtysen that you can go to see in the Louvre(C 14 At the Louvre) in Paris, France.
The Written Evidences of the existence of artificial stone in Ancient Egypt
Fragment of Ti bas reliefs
The stele of Irtysen:
The stela of Irtysen retraces the autobiography of the sculptor Irtysen under Pharaoh Mentouhotep, XI th dynasty (2000 BC). He presents the technique of making “synthetic” stone (called “casting”) . Irtysen declares himself the depository of a secret knowledge of the “making” of stones and tells us that he uses a mold to “melt” his stone statues and a mixture of materials and that in his own words: “solidified in molds “ and thus allowed him to reproduce any object . He even adds that this material at t he end of the process could not be diluted in water or burned. Irtysen was therefore expected to work with chemical binders mixed with minerals . Dr. Davidovits said he reproduced the process by grinding vitreous silicates that are actually polymeric binders. The binder of re-agglomerated stone is the result of geosynthesis (a geopolymer), he says, which creates two natural minerals: limestone and hydrated feldspar.
But there is not only the stele of Irtysen, there is also the fresco of Ti o f the Fifth Dynasty (2450 BC) which brings “its water to the mill” as we say in France.
The fresco of Ti:
This fresco shows us sculptors working on a wooden statue and making a stone statue with mixtures in vases . What is great is that this fresco shows us the difference between sculpting a statue (here wooden with hieroglyphic signs describing well the cutting of matter), and the shaping of a statue in “synthetic”stone (with the hieroglyphics: “made of the hand of man” and the action of “synthesizing”) and the mixture of chemicals to shape this statue in vases. We shall go on to speak in detail of the possible formulas. To see more about the tomb of Ti: read my article: Gigal_Ti_Article
Then, there is the famous stele of the Famine:
This inscription on a rock on the island of Sehel near Elephantine islandcontains 650 hieroglyphics designating either rocks and minerals or their processes of transformation . It features Pharaoh Djoser, the god Khnumand the king’s architect Imhotep. Now in the column 12of the text on the stele it says: “With these products they built …”Note that we do not speak about types of stones but products . Then columns 18 to 20 Khnoum gives Djoser the necessary products for the construction of the sacred monuments and these are all minerals! In this list no mention of hard or compact stones such as limestone, sandstone or granite. But as a temple or a pyramid can not be built with simple minerals, as Dr. Davidovits points out, it is a list of minerals used to create a binder that will give the re-agglomerated stone.
Stele of the famine ©AntoineGigal-2017
It’s time to talk about the process: The secrets of the artificial stone or rather re-agglomerated!
Analyzes by the German geochemist D.D.Klemm, as quoted by Dr. Davidovits, show that 97 to 100% of the blocks of the Great Pyramid originate from the soft and clay layer located in the Wadi below the Giza Plateau. Yet even the “classical” Egyptologist as M. Lehner admits that the Egyptians used as a pruning stone an unusable friable limestone! It turns out, even if it seems incredible: that the ancient Egyptians did not use the hard limestone yet close to the pyramids, the one more indicated to make stones of size! (except in rare cases for restorations later).
sphinx head and stones row©AntoineGigal-2017
The geologist L. Gauri demonstrates that this fragile limestone containing kaolinite clay, dissolves in water, exactly as the body of the sphinx has demonstrated, while its head has resisted thousands of years erosion because it was sculpted in the hard geological layer . It is therefore not even necessary to crush this fragile limestone because it forms a limestone mud during the floods of the Nile:it is only necessary to collect it! The reactive minerals are then added to this sludge: the hydrated silicate of copper and alumina (which Cheops exploited in the Sinai in abundance), the Egyptian natron which is a carbonate of soda (exploited in the wadi Natrum ) and the lime from the ashes of wood and plants.
The secrets of the artificial stone formula
Thus the mud is poured into baskets, then it is poured back into the molds of wood or bricks directly on the construction site. Then this mud with its minerals hardened … This limestone re-agglomerated by geochemical reaction hardens naturally . It has been calculated that the stone blocks consist of 90% to 95% limestone with aggregates of fossil shells and 5 to 10% of this binder , this “geopolymeric” cement based on alumina-silicates. This binder of re-agglomerated stone is therefore the result of a geosynthesis which creates two natural minerals: hydrated feldspathic and limestone which has deceived many geologists who have had the wool pulled well over their eyes.
To summarize here is the complete formula of the “artificial stone secret”:
- Kaolinite clay containing limestone is diluted in water
- In this liquid, natron is poured, that is to say : sodium carbonate
- It is poured lime of ashes from plants and wood. At this stage of natron + lime = Sodium Hydroxide. A caustic soda is obtained catalyzing the clay
- Calcite is then obtained from the hydrosodalite: Carnallite salt, that is to say magnesium chloride , is then added. A cement paste is then obtained.
- Fragments of fossil shells , rubble and nilotic silt are added: soft limestone concrete has been obtained and poured into wooden or oiled molds , for example. The sun dries everything very quickly and we get limestone blocks reconstituted, very, very solid. That’s it !
The “looking very molded stones” in the valley templeofKhafraPhoto©AntoineGigal-2017
And what seems extraordinary is that each type of stone including the hardest as anorthositic gneiss would have its binder and would make geopolymers in granite, sandstone etc … And today dozens of scientific texts are attesting of it ! Still how long some will deny a certain knowledge of the chemical sciences to the Ancient Egyptians? !!
If you like this article you will be also interested to see this video: Alchemist_of_Cairo
Text, Photos ©®AntoineGigal-2017
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