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L86A1 Light Support Weapon
A view of the L86A1 Light Support Weapon, part of the SA 80 family of small arms
L86A1 Light Support Weapon - History
The SA80A2 - Ministry of Defence (Mod) designation: L85A2 - is the standard individual weapon of the British armed forces.
Aside from the L85A2, the SA80 family of guns includes a version with heavy barrel and bipod (the L86A2 LSW), a special carbine version (the (L22A2) ) and a version with an underslung 40mm grenade launcher (UGL). There is also a single fire, manually-operated version of the rifle for cadets, the L98. All these weapons fire L2A2 ball or L1A2 tracer rounds.
The SA80 is a bullpup design, i.e. the action is to the rear of the trigger group. It uses a short-stroke gas piston system and fires from a forward-locking rotating bolt. Fire modes are single-fire and fully automatic.
General Information [ edit | edit source ]
The L86A1 LSW (Light Support Weapon) is a magazine-fed squad automatic weapon originally intended to provide fire support at a fireteam level. Its barrel is longer than the L85A1 and has a shorter handguard with a support stock with lightening holes protruding from the front holding a bipod. The stock has a shoulder strap and rear vertical grip. The weapon is otherwise identical to the L85 version on which it is based, and the same 30-round magazines and sighting systems are used. Like the L85 rifle, it has a selector on the left side behind the magazine housing, enabling either single shots or automatic fire. The bolt and trigger system are modified, so the gun can be fired from open bolt.
The increased barrel length, bipod and the optical performance of the SUSAT give the weapon excellent accuracy, increased muzzle velocity and further stabilizes the bullet, giving a greater effective range. From its inception, the L86 was a target of criticism on much the same basis as the L85. The LSW has the additional issue (shared by any light support weapon derived from a rifle, for example the heavy-barrel FN FAL) of its inability to deliver sustained automatic fire as it lacks a quick-change barrel, and belt feed.
For a time, the primary use of the LSW shifted to that of a marksman's weapon within many infantry sections, capable of providing precision fire at ranges of over 600 m however, it was replaced in this role by the Rifle, 7.62 mm L129A1. The role of a light support weapon is instead filled by the L110A2 Light Machine Gun FN Minimi, which is a belt fed weapon with a quick-change barrel.
The L86A1 was upgraded to the L86A2 at the same time as L85A1 rifles were upgraded to L85A2 standards, undergoing the same set of modifications.
L86A1 - SA-80 Light Support Weapon image - Peacebreakers mod for Battlefield 2
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As much as you can't have a war without guns, there's no need for guns without wars, You'r the Warmaker, You'r the Peacebreaker !
Looks great, good job guys!
Can't wait to lay down suppressing fire on the enemy! Will it also be deployable?
Probably from the looks of the bipod :D
wait what? project reality told me its a dmr :O
Project reality has more than one thing wrong with it you know.
The Brit DMR uses the l86a1 LSW in real life. It's getting replaced by some other rifle currently. Lmg is the fn minimi. It got all correct.
DMR, if i'm not mistaken,means Designated Marksman Rifle, so how the a Light Support Weapon, a DMR?
It's not a machinegun,it's the L86A1,wich IS a DMR
cool l86, too bad it only has a 30 round mag, because suppression will have to be short :(
Well, the amount of ammo a weapon carries has little to do with whether it is light or heavy. Slap a bigger mag in this gun and it's still a light machine gun.
"In fact, the L86A1 was more suitable as a semi-automatic para-sniperrifle, than the LSW / LMG, due to the poor reliability in full automatic fire,relatively small (by machine guns standards) magazine capacity and the lack ofquick detachable barrels.
Spearmen protected archers, another important feature of the battlefield. Three types of bows increased the power of medieval archers, giving them more range and capacity to kill—recurve bows, crossbows and longbows.
Even with their extra power, arrows rarely penetrated metal armor, as shown by tests at Britain’s Royal Armories. But the force of their impact could still incapacitate and shatter morale, as described in military historian John Keegan’s account of the Battle of Agincourt (1415) in The Face of Battle.
Infantry support guns [ edit | edit source ]
Development history [ edit | edit source ]
Infantry support guns were the first type of artillery employed by armed forces, initially in China, and later brought to Europe by the Mongol invasion. In their initial form, they lacked carriages or wheels, and were simple cast barrels called pots de fer in French, or vasi in Italian. Ώ] These weapons were relatively small, immobile, and fired large bolts or quarrels. Along with increases in the sizes of ordnance (the barrels) came the requirement of easier transportation. This led to two divergent approaches, the very light hand-gun, and eventually the arquebus, while another avenue of development led to the light ordnance, now on wheeled carriages, such as the 2-pounder Culvern moyane, the 1-pounder Falcon, and the 3/4-pounder Falconet. ΐ] These lighter Renaissance pieces eventually led to the development of the 3-pounder and 4-pounder regimental guns of the 17th century as well as the leather cannon, notably in the army of Gustavus Adolphus. Α] The light field guns of the 17th century, commonly known as a drake in England, came in almost 100 different calibres, Β] with each having its own distinct name, some of which were: Γ]
5 pound, 3½ inch saker, weighing 1 ton 4 pound, 3 inch minion, weighing 3/4 ton 2 pound, 2¾ inch falcon, weighing 1/4 ton 1 pound, 2 inch falconet, weighing 200lbs ¾ pound, ¼ inch robinet, weighing 100lbs
The saker and falcon had point-blank ranges of 360 and 320 yards, and 2,170 and 1,920 yards extreme ranges respectively. Γ]
Although oxen were used to haul the heavier field and siege ordnance, some on wagons rather than limbers, they were too slow to keep up with the infantry, and so horses were used to pull the lighter pieces, leading to the development of the artillery carriage and horse team that survived until the late 19th century.
17th-19th century development [ edit | edit source ]
The first School of Artillery in Venice was opened early in the 16th century, Δ] and by the late 17th century the different old names of the lighter ordnance were abandoned, and replaced with the French canon, or cannon.
The first regimental guns in English service were ordered by King James II in 1686 two 3-pounders for each of the seven regiments (of one battalion each) encamped in Hyde Park. Ε] Attachment of guns to the infantry had practical reasons also. While the allocation of horses was reckoned at one for each 350-500 pounds of ordnance and its carriage, this was only true for availability of good horses and good roads, both in short supply due to unscrupulous civilian contractors and lack of road building technology. Ζ] In cases where the work was excessive for horses alone, infantry would join them in pulling the guns, calculated at 80 lbs per infantryman, Η] a load which remains at the upper limit of the average light infantry unit requirement today.
The 3 pounder Grasshopper cannon was in use with British forces in the 18th Century. Each British infantry battalion had an officer and 34 non commissioned officers and other ranks trained by the Royal Artillery to handle the two 3 or light 6 pounder guns battalion guns. ⎖]
Frederick the Great of Prussia was the first to introduce artillery tactics for the regimental guns which were to accompany the infantry units as part of his reform of the Prussian artillery as a whole before and during the Seven Years War. ⎗] This included the determination that canister shot was only effective at a range of 100 yards, same as that of the musket range, and therefore put the gunners into the environment of direct infantry combat due to Frederick's insistence that artillery should participate in the infantry attack. ⎘]
The French artillery ordnance (barrels) was standardised into five calibres in the second half of the 17th century: 4-pounders (regimental guns), 8-pounders and 12-pounders (field artillery), 24-pounders and 32-pounders (garrison or fortress artillery).
Manufacture of the ordnance was also revolutionised by the early-18th century invention of the boring mechanism by the Swiss gun-founder Moritz of Geneva which allowed for a far greater precision achieved in the casting, in essence creating a huge lathe on which the barrel casting turned instead of the boring tool. ⎙] Manufacture of cannonballs was also improved so the projectiles were now well-fitted to the bore of the ordnance, and after conducting experiments with gunpowder, the powder charges were determined to be one-third the weight of the shot (cannonball). ⎚]
Frederick's artillery doctrine influenced the development of the French artillery troops, and after 1764 Jean Baptiste Vaquette de Gribeauval, the first Inspector of Artillery, after conducting trials in Strasbourg, reorganised French artillery units to provide them with greater mobility, changing length of the barrels to standard 18-calibre length, including the regimental 4-pounders. These were now pulled by four horses and used large six-wheeled vehicles that also included the caissons. The system of ordnance, carriages, ball, and powder charges introduced by de Gribeauval remained virtually unaltered through the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars.
General Augustin Lespinasse on battalion guns: "If you want to prevent your troops from manouevering, embarrass them with guns. A line of infantry supported by good, properly established batteries retains its order of battle better" ⎛]
20th century development [ edit | edit source ]
Belgium [ edit | edit source ]
The Canon de 76 FRC was a Belgian infantry support gun, produced by the Fonderie Royale des Canons (FRC). The gun was typically of 76 mm calibre however, an optional 47 mm barrel could be fitted instead. The gun was designed for transport via a trailer towed by a vehicle. In 1940, the Wehrmacht redesignated these as 7.6 cm IG 260(b).
France [ edit | edit source ]
The Canon d'Infantrie de 37 modele 1916 TRP (37mm mle.1916) was a French infantry support gun, first used during World War I. The gun was used by a number of forces during and after the war. The US acquired a number of these guns, which they designated 37mm M1916 however, by 1941 the US Army had put these into storage (or scrapped them). Poland fielded a number. In 1940, the Wehrmacht began using these as 3.7 cm IG 152(f). During the First World War, the Japanese Type 11 was based on this design.
Founding of National Farm Workers Association and the 1965 Grape Strike
Chavez knew firsthand the struggles of the nation’s poorest and most powerless workers, who labored to put food on the nation’s tables while often going hungry themselves. Not covered by minimum wage laws, many made as little as 40 cents an hour, and did not qualify for unemployment insurance. Previous attempts to unionize farm workers had failed, as California’s powerful agricultural industry fought back with all the weight of their money and political power.
Chavez was inspired by the nonviolent civil disobedience pioneered by Gandhi in India, and the example of St. Francis of Assisi, the 13th-century Italian nobleman who gave up his material wealth to live with and work on behalf of the poor. Working doggedly to build the NFWA alongside fellow organizer Dolores Huerta, Chavez traveled around the San Joaquin and Imperial Valleys to recruit union members. Meanwhile, Helen Chavez worked in the fields to support the family, as they struggled to stay afloat.
In September 1965, the NFWA launched a strike against California’s grape growers alongside the Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee (AWOC), a Filipino-American labor group. The strike lasted five years and expanded into a nationwide boycott of California grapes. The boycott drew widespread support, thanks to the highly visible campaign headed by Chavez, who led a 340-mile march from Delano to Sacramento in 1966 and undertook a well-publicized 25-day hunger strike in 1968.
“I am convinced that the truest act of courage, the strongest act of manliness, is to sacrifice ourselves for others in a totally non-violent struggle for justice,” Chavez declared, in a speech read on his behalf when his first hunger strike ended. “To be a man is to suffer for others. God help us be men."
7. Hot air balloons
Because they allowed generals to get an aerial view of the battlefield, Civil War balloons were primarily used in a reconnaissance capacity. The Union even had an official Balloon Corps headed by 𠇌hief Aeronaut” Thaddeus Lowe. Under his direction, balloons were launched for scouting purposes at several famous engagements, including the First Battle of Bull Run and the Battles of Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville. In a balloon tethered to the ground with a telegraph line, Lowe was able to give real-time updates on troop movements, and once even directed Union artillery fire from the sky.
The Confederacy also tried their hand at military ballooning, although with considerably less success. The South lacked the resources to make good balloons, and their one operational airship—reportedly made from a colorful patchwork of silk—was captured after the tugboat carrying it ran aground on the James River.
Fabrique Nationale M249 SAW / LMG
Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 09/17/2018 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site.
When the United States Army moved to adopt a new light machine gun, it selected the excellent Belgian Fabrique Nationale FN Minimi as the "M249 SAW" ("Squad Automatic Weapon"). The M249 became more or less a direct adaptation of the Belgian design with a few Army-requested changes to suit mission needs and American production methodology. The weapon was selected in 1982, introduced with the US Army in 1984 (the US Marines accepted the weapon in 1985) and, after an extensive period of testing common to most US military firearms, the M249 was finally delivered to frontline US Army forces in 1992. By and large, the M249 remains faithful to the overall form and function of the FN Minimi with the most notable change being the addition of a perforated heat shield at the barrel and a new butt. The heat shield protects the operator from accidental burns and also serves to minimize the effects of heat distorting the action as seen through the sights.
Like other modern infantry forces, the US military survives through various levels of specialists that benefit the whole. Base infantryman armed with their standard service rifles head the assault and these forces are supported by specialist troops armed with larger, heavier automatic weapons for suppression fire and direct contact of enemy forces. The M249 fulfills this role as a portable, voluminous fire design intended to support infantry actions at the squad level.
The US move to a more compact machine gun was born from a 1960s initiative which saw American ground forces tied to the cumbersome, rifle-caliber-chambered M60 General Purpose Machine Gun (GPMG) of the Vietnam War era and the Browning M2HB heavy machine gun system. As such, there proved a "bridge requirement" to bring about a more portable system chambered for the smaller 5.56mm NATO round via belt. The weapon would be crewed by a single operator for efficient management in the field and provide the needed sustained fire through a high-volume automatic action. While various experiments were conducted in the Vietnam War to find such a weapon, the solution would not come until well after the war in the 1980s with the settlement of the Belgian FN Minimi. The Minimi was successfully evaluated (as the XM249) beginning in 1974 against the Colt M16 HBAR and the Heckler & Koch HK23A1. Testing continued into 1981.
The M249 retains the general appearance and layout of the FN Minimi before it. The receiver is a large, rectangular block housing the required internal components. The stock is a webbed, twin strutted assembly affixed to the rear of the receiver in the usual way. The trigger group and pistol grip are underslung beneath the receiver. Ahead of the receiver is the forend/handguard shrouding a portion of the barrel and gas cylinder. A folding bipod assembly is fitted at the gas cylinder and collapses rearwards against it when not used. The barrel protrudes a short distance ahead of the forend and is capped by a conical slotted flash hider. Iron sights are provided over the receiver and midway along the barrel. A carrying handle is offset to the right side to facilitate transport and barrel changing. Ammunition is fed through a port along the left side (box or belt) and exits from the right. Sling loops allow use of a shoulder strap. The M249 can also be supported via the M192 LGM tripod assembly.
The M249 features a running length of 41 inches with an unloaded weight of 16lbs. The barrel measures 18 to 20.5 inches long and is rifled with 6-grooves and a right-hand twist. The weapon is chambered for the 5.56x45mm NATO standard cartridge - the same as used in the M16 series of assault rifles and M4 Carbines - and can fire from a 30-round detachable box hard magazine (STANAG) or a 200-round M27 series metal linked belt in a soft case. The M249 can, therefore, actually be fed by way of the M16/M4 magazine. Cyclic rate-of-fire is 750 rounds per minute with a muzzle velocity of 3,000 feet per second at effective ranges out to 870 yards and a maximum range out to 3,900 yards. The firing action is of gas-operation through an open bolt arrangement. A typical SAW man is afforded 2 x 200-round 5.56mm belts.
The M249 received its baptism of fire in the 1989 US invasion of Panama to unseat dictator Manuel Noriega. It then was pressed into action once more in larger numbers during the 1991 Gulf War. From then on, the weapon has seen consistent service through the Bosnian and Kosovo wars, the 2001 US-led invasion of Afghanistan and the 2003 US-led invasion of Iraq. In service, the M249 has given good results as a reliable, high-volume fire weapon. It excelled when used as a stationary weapon though with slightly poorer results when operated from the shoulder. In particular, the M249 proved prone to capturing dirt and sand and this went on to become the weapon's major complaint by users. A collapsible butt was eventually issued for a more compact profile and recognized as the "Para" version for its airborne paratrooper intention. The M249 has become a stable of American urban warfare engagements in Iraq.
Production of American M249s is handled by FN Manufacturing Company of Columbia, South Carolina, USA. The initial batch of 1,100 M249s were built and delivered directly from Belgian factories and were marked as such. Since entering service as the "M249 SAW", the system has been redesignated in 1994 to "M249 Light Machine Gun (LMG)".
The M249 has been manufactured or modified into several notable forms beyond the first generation base M249. The M249 PIP was an early Product Improvement Program form with a plastic stock replacing the original metal one. New sights were also added as was a new pistol grip, bipod and flash suppressor. Picatinny rail sections were eventually installed. The M249 PARA is a more compact version with sliding butt. The M249 Special Purpose Weapon is a compact SOCOM series version with weight reduction taken to the extreme - lacking the carrying handle, magazine well and vehicle mounting hardware. Another SOCOM type is the Mk 46 Mod 0 with Picatinny rail support and varying barrel options. The Mk 48 is yet another SOCOM breed following the Mk 46 Mod 0 though chambered for the larger rifle-caliber 7.62x51mm NATO standard cartridge.
It is noteworthy that the FN Minimi has been adopted by many major modern world forces including Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Spain, Sweden, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey and the United Kingdom (among others).
Light Recoilless Rifle
The Light Recoilless Rifle is the lightest of the three types of recoilless rifles in use by military forces of the thirty-first century. Based on designs dating back to the mid-20th Century, recoilless rifles launch a high-explosive fin-stabilized rocket at a target while simultaneously venting high-velocity gas, known as backblast, out the rear end of the weapon. The backblast, which for the light rifle extends out only to two meters, can be dangerous, but allows for recoilless fire and greater thrust potential. The result is a rocket traveling at greater velocities than normal missiles, making them effectively immune to anti-missile systems and contributing to their growing popularity as these systems proliferate. Ώ] ΐ]
Light recoilless rifles are shoulder-fired weapons which, while lacking in firepower, make up for it by the ability to be effectively operated by a single person. It can also fire a variety of ordnance types except for FASCAM and flares. Ώ]