The story

Seneca ScGbt - History

Seneca ScGbt - History



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Seneca

(ScGbt: t. 507; 1. 158'4"; b. 28'0"; dph. 12'0"; dr. 10'6"; s. 111/2 k., cpl. 84; a. 1 11" D. sb., 1 20-par. P.r., 2 24-par. how.)

The first Seneca-a wooden-hulled "ninety day gunboat" built at New York City by J. Simonson-was launched on 27 August 1861, and commissioned at the New York Navy Yard on 14 October 1861, Lt. Daniel Ammen in command.

On 5 November 1861, Seneca and three other Federal Union gunboats engaged and dispersed a Confederate squadron near Port Royal, S.C.; two days later, she took part in the capture of Port Royal, which proved to be an invaluable Union naval base throughout the remainder of the Civil War. From the 9th to the 12th she took part in the expedition which took possession of Beaufort, S.C. On the 5th of December, she participated in the operations about Tybee Sound to help seal off Savannah, Ga. The next day, she was in sight during the capture of schooner, Cheshire, entitling her crew to share in prize money.

From January 1862 to January 1863, Seneca's area of operations extended from Wilmington, North Carolina, to Florida. On 27 January 1863, she took part in the attack on Fort MeAllister, Gal; and, on 1 February, she participated in a second attack. On 28 February in the Ogeechee River, she supported Montauk in the destruction of privateer, Rattlesnake, the former Confederate warship, Nashville. In July 1863, she was one of the vessels in the attack on Fort Wagner. She later returned via Port Royal to the New York Navy Yard where she was decommissioned on 15 January 1864.

She was recommissioned on 3 October 1864, Comdr. George E. Belknap in command, and was assigned to the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron. On 24 and 25 December 1864, Seneca took part in the abortive attack on Fort Fisher, and, between 13 and 15 January 1865, she participated in the successful second attack which finally captured that Southern coastal stronghold and doomed Wilmington, closing the Confederacy's last major seaport. On 17 February, she was in the force which attacked Fort Anderson and captured it two days later.

At the end of the war, Seneca returned to Norfolk Cva., where she was decommissioned on 24 June 1865. The ship was sold on 10 September 1868 at Norfolk to Purvis and Company.


Early life and family

Seneca was the second son of a wealthy family. His father, Seneca (Seneca the Elder), had been famous in Rome as a teacher of rhetoric. His mother, Helvia, was of excellent character and education. His elder brother was Gallio, who met St. Paul the Apostle in Achaea in 52 ce , and his younger brother was the father of the poet Lucan. An aunt took young Seneca as a boy to Rome, and there he was trained as an orator and educated in philosophy in the school of the Sextii, which blended Stoicism with an ascetic Neo-Pythagoreanism. Seneca’s health suffered, and he went to recuperate in Egypt, where his aunt lived with her husband, the prefect, Gaius Galerius. Returning to Rome about the year 31, he began a career in politics and law. Soon he fell foul of the emperor Caligula, who was deterred from killing him only by the argument that his life was sure to be short.

In 41 the emperor Claudius banished Seneca to Corsica on a charge of adultery with the princess Julia Livilla, the emperor’s niece. In that uncongenial milieu he studied natural science and philosophy and wrote the three treatises entitled Consolationes (Consolations). The influence of Julia Agrippina, the emperor’s wife, had him recalled to Rome in 49. He became praetor in 50, married Pompeia Paulina, a wealthy woman, built up a powerful group of friends, including the new prefect of the guard, Sextus Afranius Burrus, and became tutor to the future emperor Nero.

The murder of Claudius in 54 pushed Seneca and Burrus to the top. Their friends held the great army commands on the German and Parthian frontiers. Nero’s first public speech, drafted by Seneca, promised liberty for the Senate and an end to the influence of freedmen and women. Agrippina, Nero’s mother, was resolved that her influence should continue, and there were other powerful enemies. But Seneca and Burrus, although provincials from Spain and Gaul, understood the problems of the Roman world. They introduced fiscal and judicial reforms and fostered a more humane attitude toward slaves. Their nominee Corbulo defeated the Parthians in Britain a more enlightened administration followed the quashing of Queen Boudicca’s rebellion.

But, as the historian Tacitus said, “Nothing in human affairs is more unstable and precarious than power unsupported by its own strength.” Seneca and Burrus were a tyrant’s favourites. In 59 they had to condone—or to contrive—the murder of Agrippina. When Burrus died in 62, Seneca knew that he could not go on. He withdrew from public life, and in his remaining years he wrote some of his best philosophical works. In 65 Seneca’s enemies denounced him as having been a party to the conspiracy of Piso to murder Nero. Ordered to commit suicide, he met death with fortitude and composure.


The History of Seneca Resources

If you need to report an emergency, you can contact Seneca Resources 24 hours a day, 7 days a week at 1-800-526-2608 in Pennsylvania and 1-888-595-8595 in California.

With more than 100 years as an exploration and production company, Seneca Resources has a rich history of natural gas exploration and production. Plus, the roots of Seneca and its parent company, National Fuel Gas Company, go back nearly two centuries to the very formation of the natural gas industry.

Observing natural gas escaping from Canadaway Creek in Fredonia, N.Y., gunsmith William Hart drilled a 17-foot hole in the shallow shale in 1821, eventually providing gas service to local stores and buildings for lighting and cooking. This is recognized as the first commercial use of natural gas in the United States.

The natural gas industry, however, did not catch on until entrepreneurs were looking for a new product&mdashoil&mdashthat could be used for lighting and other purposes. In Titusville, Pa., Edwin L. Drake&rsquos drilling effort first produced the black gold on August 27, 1859. The mad rush for oil resulted in finding massive amounts of a sister fossil fuel&mdashnatural gas, often flared as a &ldquowaste product.&rdquo Intrigued with the mysterious product, John D. Rockefeller&rsquos Standard Oil turned its attention to natural gas and by the 1880s, Standard and other interests created numerous local natural gas firms in the region.

National Fuel Gas Company incorporates on December 8 and acquires interests in Pennsylvania Gas Company, United Natural Gas Company and other assets in West Virginia, Ohio and New York.

One of many natural gas exploration companies operating in western Pennsylvania eventually would result in the creation of Seneca. The Mars Natural Gas Company was organized on June 9, 1913, by several unaffiliated parties of the Borough of Mars, Pa., and it produced and sold natural gas. The Mars Natural Gas Company was later incorporated into the National Fuel Gas Company family of firms. Changing its name to The Mars Company in 1918, it subsequently purchased and developed numerous small natural gas and oil-producing properties and also operated plants for the extraction of natural gasoline and liquid petroleum gases. In the next decade, Mars expanded by acquiring property and assets of various local natural gas firms in western Pennsylvania.

Another National Fuel firm that would eventually contribute to the composition of Seneca Resources was the Sylvania Corporation, formed in 1928. Sylvania was engaged as a non-utility that produced and sold natural gas. Sylvania was involved in the discovery of many important natural gas pools in the Oriskany sandstone formation in north-central Pennsylvania during the 1930s&ndash1950s.

As the thirst for natural gas escalated, National Fuel&rsquos exploration efforts constantly sought to fulfill the demand with significant gas discoveries, such as Sylvania&rsquos wildcat well in Cameron County, Pa., striking the Driftwood-Benezette field in Oriskany sands. Despite many gas finds, Appalachian supplies could not meet the skyrocketing, post-war demand for natural gas, so attention turned to the Southwest and Gulf of Mexico region that would become the major producing area for U.S. supplies for the next half-century.

Hydraulic fracturing

Hydraulic fracturing of oil and gas wells to improve well production was first used in the 1940s and soon became a common practice. Fracturing or fracking forces water, sand grains and a small amount of chemicals into the well. Most oil and gas wells in the U.S. are fracked with a variety of techniques and materials depending on the geology to improve production of new and storage wells.

1974–1976

In 1974, National Fuel Gas Company realigned United Natural Gas Company, Pennsylvania Gas Company and Iroquois Gas Corporation into National Fuel Gas Distribution Corporation and the National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation&mdashthe pipeline, storage and transmission segment. In 1976, the company opened a Houston office to help coordinate Southwest gas purchases. This would pave the way for National Fuel to start a Southwest gas exploration program.

National Fuel changed the name of The Mars Company to Seneca Resources Corporation and gave it the mission of exploring for natural gas supplies outside of the traditional service area. The subsidiary&rsquos Houston Division explored for oil and gas in the Southwest and eventually conducted business in 12 U.S. states and Alberta, Canada. Seneca Resources acquired significant gas and oil reserves in Texas and along Gulf Coast shallow waters. The company expanded west in 1987, when it obtained substantial reserves of light crude oil and some natural gas from Argo Petroleum in Ventura County, Calif., establishing a divisional office in Santa Paula.

National Fuel formed a new subsidiary, Empire Exploration, Inc., to coordinate drilling in the Appalachian region. Because of the involvement in Appalachian drilling since nearly the inception of the industry, National Fuel controlled oil and gas rights on more than 775,000 undeveloped acres of oil and gas property, much of that acreage as the total landowner. After deregulation of natural gas production increased gas supply and reduced wellhead prices, drilling in the Appalachian basin became severely depressed. However, decades of ownership of oil and gas rights in this region would turn out to be a &ldquodiamond in the rough&rdquo a quarter century later when attention would return to Appalachia and the Marcellus Shale.

1990s

Despite low prices for natural gas and oil, soon the assets in Texas and the Gulf Coast waters would pay off and become National Fuel Gas Company&rsquos most significant opportunity for growth. Beginning in 1991, Seneca Resources changed its focus from building long-lived reserves through acquisitions to accelerating cash flow. New discoveries and record production was achieved, largely due to modern seismic data and analysis, including the use of 3-D seismic technology.

National Fuel&rsquos Appalachian drilling unit, Empire Exploration, merged into Seneca Resources and over the next decade, Seneca Resources would develop three main divisions: East, covering the Appalachian natural gas exploration and production Southwest, including gas and oil drilling efforts in Texas, Louisiana, Alabama and the Gulf of Mexico and West, primarily oil production in California.

Seneca Resources expanded by acquiring all outstanding shares of Tri-Link Resources, Ltd., of Calgary, Alberta. National Fuel Exploration Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Seneca Resources, was formed to explore and develop oil and gas wells in Canada and acquired Player Petroleum Corporation of Alberta. Seneca Resources also reached a five-year agreement with Talisman Energy, Inc. of Calgary, the largest independent oil and gas producer in Canada, to explore for deep oil and gas in the Appalachian basin.

2006–2007

Scaling back exploration in the Gulf of Mexico, Seneca Resources sold interests in oil and gas production in western Canada, but accelerated onshore drilling efforts in Texas, increased oil production in California and stepped up exploration in the Appalachian region.

In 2006-07, Seneca Resources partnered with EOG Resources and drilled its first vertical and horizontal wells in the promising Marcellus Shale formations. The total Marcellus acreage position was expanded to more than 775,000 acres, which lead to an ambitious company-operated Marcellus and Utica Shale exploration program using modern hydraulic fracturing techniques, including environmentally friendly ground-breaking methods of recycling and other best practices to protect drilling lands and groundwater.

Highland Field Services, LLC (HFS), a subsidiary of Seneca Resources, was established to address the water management needs for Seneca and other oil and gas companies in the Appalachian basin. HFS operates two facilities in northwest Pennsylvania near the heart of the Western Development Area for Seneca.

National Fuel completes acquisition of Shell&rsquos integrated upstream and midstream assets in Pennsylvania, the largest acquisition in our company&rsquos 118-year history.


Responsibilities

The Seneca County Historian has four broad categories of duties and functions, according to New York State law:

  • Research and Writing to help interpret the county’s past
  • Teaching and Public Presentations to help the public to learn about the county’s past
  • Historic Preservation of the documents and artifacts that help document the county’s past
  • The organization, Advocacy and Tourism Promotion to help organize and direct the commemoration of historic anniversaries and participate in other civic or patriotic observations

In addition to the above, the Seneca County Historian provides assistance to those conducting genealogical research.

The Seneca County Historian’s Office contains many kinds of information and provides various services. These include the following:


The Complicated History of the Kinzua Dam and How It Changed Life for the Seneca People

Looking upstream, the Kinzua Dam seems to protrude brusquely from the Allegheny River. Nestled securely between the rolling hills of Warren County, Pennsylvania, the dam holds the river back. Behind it, the resulting Allegheny Reservoir stretches 27 miles long and 120 feet deep.

The Pittsburgh District of the United States Army Corps of Engineers completed construction of the Kinzua Dam in 1965 and manages it to this day. In 1936, Congress authorized the building of the dam as part of a system of reservoirs on the Monongahela and Allegheny rivers. According to Rose Reilly, a biologist with the Pittsburgh District of the Army Corps of Engineers, the Kinzua Dam has two congressional purposes: flood control and water quality improvement for the Pittsburgh region.

The formidable Kinzua Dam, which protects Pittsburgh from flooding and pollution, came at a steep price for the Seneca Nation of Indians. They lost nine communities and 10,000 acres of their Allegany Territory to the dam. Pressure from climate change, however, could threaten the protection gained from the Seneca Nation’s coerced sacrifice.

(Map created by Blue Raster)

In 1956, plans for the Kinzua Dam — which for the previous two decades had been vague and nebulous — began to move forward. Twenty years earlier, in the infamous St. Patrick’s Day Flood, the entire Ohio River Basin had experienced catastrophic flooding. In Pittsburgh alone, water levels rose 21 feet above the usual flood level. In one day.

The devastation caused by the flood lent urgency to long-standing calls for a flood control project on the Allegheny River. Congress responded by passing the Flood Control Act of 1936, which paved the way for the eventual construction of the Kinzua Dam. Fervor for the project waned for many years as the United States became embroiled in military conflict.

By the mid-1950s, Congress and the Army Corps of Engineers were ready to move forward. Dennis Bowen Sr., a Seneca survivor of Kinzua Dam, considers dam building an essential part of the federal government’s post-war strategy. “Keep in mind,” he says, “that, by the early 1950s, this was after World War II and the Korean War. There were a lot of white families that needed jobs, they needed industry, and those factories, those industries all across the country needed electric power. And so why not steal Indian land and build a dam and make hydroelectric power?”

In October 1956, against the Seneca Nation’s wishes, the Army Corps of Engineers began surveying Allegany Territory land in preparation for the Kinzua Dam. The proposed structure would require the flooding or condemnation of 10,000 acres of the Allegany Territory.

Much was at stake in the Kinzua Dam challenge: losing their land would eventually cost around 600 Seneca people their homes. In the balance hung communities like Red House, New York. Bowen grew up there, on the Allegany Territory. Red House was a small town that spanned the Allegheny River connected by the eponymous Red House Bridge. He remembers his town as self-sufficient its residents regularly canned vegetables, cut firewood, fished and hunted. Living there, he was happy.

Fish near the base of Kinzua Dam. (Photo by Maria Diaz-Gonzalez/PublicSource)

Red House lay in the Kinzua Dam’s “take area” — defined by the Army Corps of Engineers as any land behind the structure that fell below 1,365 feet of elevation. All of that land became subject to a flowage easement, meaning it could experience flooding due to the operations of the reservoir. Some of it is permanently inundated, construction or habitation is prohibited on the rest. The Army Corps used the flowage easement to forcefully relocate the inhabitants of the take area, including those of Red House and other towns. They then burned the towns. According to Bowen, his childhood home is the first one shown succumbing to the flames in the 2017 documentary Lake of Betrayal. Many of the markers of traditional Seneca life, like their houses, wood stoves and gardens, were consumed in such fires. The losses, both physical and intangible, reverberated across the Seneca Nation.

Stephen Gordon, a Seneca elder, grew up in a town called Coldspring, which was also within Kinzua Dam’s take area. In Coldspring, he was surrounded by fluent speakers of the Seneca language. According to Gordon, his great-grandmother, Hannah Abrams, championed the continued use of their language in the home. She would say to his mother, “You leave that English language at the road. You don’t bring it into this house. It isn’t spoken here.”

The Allegheny Front: “FaithKeepers: Reclaiming Traditional Seneca Culture”

In his mother’s time and in his own, the New York state public education system aggressively pushed assimilation for Native children. The education system, Gordon relates, hoped to erase his community’s indigeneity. “They wanted us to become a part of the melting pot. And in order to do that, it was important that the education system drill it into us that you have to learn English, you have to learn mathematics, you have to learn history. And that your history doesn’t matter,” he says.

Despite this, the Seneca language persisted, especially among older adults. Many Seneca elders however, passed away in the aftermath of the condemnation and burning of their homelands. They died, Bowen stresses, of broken hearts.

The Kinzua Dam spillway. (Photo by Maria Diaz-Gonzalez/PublicSource)

The devastation nearly stifled the passing down of the Seneca language. “That was the signal,” Gordon says. He describes 1964 as “the signal of change, of leaving our past behind.”

With an entire world at stake — a homeland, a way of life, a language — the Seneca Nation did not want to cede its territory and launched a legal case to protect it.

The Seneca Nation grounded its legal defense in the Treaty of Canandaigua. The 1794 treaty affirmed a “permanent friendship” between the fledgling United States and the Hodinöhsö:ni (Iroquois Confederacy, of which the Seneca Nation was a member).

President George Washington ordered the negotiation of the treaty with the hope of preventing a military alliance between the Hodinöhsö:ni and Ohio Territory Natives, which would have posed an existential threat to the United States. The treaty established in writing the extent of the Seneca Nation’s territory: an area that encompassed the entirety of western New York. It declared of the land that “the United States will never claim the same, nor disturb the Seneka Nation … in the free use and enjoyment thereof: but it shall remain theirs, until they choose to sell the same to the people of the United States, who have the right to purchase.”

Robert Odawi Porter, a lawyer and former president of the Seneca Nation, asserts that treaties with Native Nations are legally the same as treaties with international ones. They are negotiated by the president, and ratified by a two-thirds vote in the Senate. They also carry the binding force of federal law.

In 1956, the Seneca Nation believed in the words of the treaty, and in the significance of George Washington’s legally binding promises. Seneca leaders asserted that their lands could not be surveyed or condemned by the Army Corps of Engineers because the Treaty of Canandaigua remained in effect. In early 1957, however, a federal court decided against them. The judge in United States v. 21,250 Acres of Land Etc. ruled that the Seneca Nation could not bar federal agents from entering its territory and could not resist the taking of its land via eminent domain. The ruling declared that the Treaty of Canandaigua could not actually protect Seneca Nation land from seizure because it “cannot rise above the power of Congress to legislate.”

Seneca leaders appealed the ruling. In doing so, they challenged centuries of racist legal precedent. The judge in United States v. 21,250 Acres of Land Etc. cited the 1903 Supreme Court Case Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock to affirm the federal government’s right to expropriate treaty-protected reservation lands. The opinion in Lone Wolf granted Congress the right to unilaterally abrogate an Indian treaty, arguing that that no treaty could be interpreted to “materially limit and qualify the controlling authority of Congress … when the necessity might be urgent for a partition and disposal of the tribal lands.”

The Supreme Court leaned on racist notions about Native Americans to defend this decision. The opinion cited a passage from an earlier Supreme Court case Beecher v. Wetherby . The passage stated that in exercising its power to displace Natives, the federal government would presumably “be governed by such considerations of justice as would control a Christian people in their treatment of an ignorant and dependent race.”

The Allegheny Reservoir, also known as Kinzua Lake, was created by the Kinzua Dam. (Photo by Maria Diaz-Gonzalez/PublicSource)

By 1959, these centuries-old forces closed the Seneca Nation’s legal options against the Kinzua Dam.

The Seneca people offered yet another way.

In 1957, Seneca leaders hired civil engineer Arthur E. Morgan, the first chairman of the Tennessee Valley Authority , to explore alternate flood control solutions for the Pittsburgh region. Over the next three years, Morgan and the Seneca Nation argued in court, on television and before Congress that the Kinzua Dam was not an optimal solution to flooding in the Ohio River Basin.

Instead, Morgan put forth the Conewango-Cattaraugus Plan. In it, he proposed a diversion dam near Coldspring, New York, to divide the flow of the Allegheny River. According to a Buffalo Courier-Express newspaper article from April 10, 1960, Morgan’s dam would reroute some of the river’s water into two outlets: Lake Erie and Conewango Creek by Waterboro, New York. On its way toward Lake Erie, diverted water would fill a natural depression in Conewango Valley, forming a recreational lake.

“Indian people have always been the supermarket for America.”

Morgan held that the Conewango-Cattaraugus plan had several advantages over the Kinzua Dam. He contended that having Lake Erie as an outlet provided his plan with much greater water storage capacity than the dam. This would afford the Pittsburgh region increased protection from flood waters and create greater opportunities for hydropower exploration, he says. The engineer also affirmed that the lake at Conewango Valley would be far more stable than the Allegheny Reservoir, whose seasonal fluctuations would reveal several miles of “unsightly mud flats” every year.

Morgan and the Seneca Nation’s efforts succeeded in delaying the construction of the dam and rallying moderate government and strong public support for their cause. Luminaries like Eleanor Roosevelt voiced support for a resolution to the region’s flooding problems that could leave Seneca lands undisturbed. Johnny Cash recorded a song “As Long as the Grass Shall Grow,” chronicling the battle against the Kinzua Dam. But it was not enough. In late 1957, the Corps hired engineering firm Tippetts-Abbett-McCarthy-Stratton [TAMS] to evaluate its plans and Morgan’s proposal. TAMS concluded that the Conewango-Cattaraugus plan would be too expensive. Morgan contended that TAMS was biased in favor of the Corps because the federal agency was its biggest client.

On Oct. 22, 1960, groundbreaking for the Kinzua Dam began, promising to drown an invaluable part of the Seneca’s world.

The federal government has a long history of betraying Native people for American gain. In Bowen’s words, “Indian people have always been the supermarket for America.”

“They wanted us to become a part of the melting pot. And in order to do that, it was important that the education system drill it into us that you have to learn English…your history doesn’t matter.”

At the Kinzua Dam, the Seneca Nation’s loss protects the lower Allegheny valley from flooding and from the pollution of Pennsylvania’s heritage industries. The Army Corps of Engineers do this by varying the amount of water in the Allegheny Reservoir: they sequester water during periods of heavy precipitation and release it during dry spells. The former prevents downstream flooding and the latter dilutes pollution in the river’s water.

Dams, like people, have lifespans. According to Reilly, the Corps biologist, the buildup of sediment (siltation) defines the lifespan of a dam and reservoir system.

Doug Helman, a supervisory natural resource manager with the Pittsburgh District of the Army Corps of Engineers, explains that when moving river water approaches a reservoir, it slows down. “And when the water slows down, then those nutrients and chemicals and silt drop down to the bottom of the river.”

Over the years, the buildup of such (sometimes toxic) materials can fill an entire reservoir with sediment and render it obsolete as a method of flood control. The Allegheny Reservoir is protected from siltation by its length most of the river’s sediment drops off near the reservoir’s northern border in the Seneca’s Allegany Territory, over 20 miles away from the Kinzua Dam.

The system however, may face mounting pressure from climate change. According to members of the Pittsburgh District Army Corps of Engineers, the region has in recent years experienced record rainfall. Helman warns that these conditions may require that the Corps release reservoir water from the Kinzua Dam at a greater rate than they would like. This would likely increase flooding downstream.

Areas upstream of, and not protected by Kinzua Dam are also affected by the changing weather. Mike Debes, a floodplain manager with the Army Corps, says the Allegheny River valley’s development history is a leading cause of its flooding problems. “As more and more homes and roads and impervious structures and roads are built, more and more water is working its way into the small creeks, and more and more flooding is occurring.”

The growing imperviousness of the river’s floodplain, coupled with climate change, are bringing regular floods to communities that had rarely experienced them before. Those flood waters eventually find their way to the Allegheny Reservoir and Kinzua Dam, a system Reilly says is large enough to handle them, though it was built using climate data available before and during the 1960s.

Debes says the education public officials and community members will need to deal with the wetter reality of the Allegheny River valley will take a lot of time. But the need is pressing. Homes, towns, communities — the very things the water now threatens — are, in Debes’ words, “one of the real basic things in life.”

The Kinzua Dam was built during a time in American politics known as the Termination Era: a period after World War II in which the country tried to assimilate all Native people. To this end, in 1953, Congress adopted House Concurrent Resolution 108, which called for dissolution of all Native Nations in New York, Florida, California and Texas as well as other nations it specifically named from other states. The resolution sought to “make the Indians within the territorial limits of the United States subject to the same laws and entitled to the same privileges and responsibilities as are applicable to other citizens of the United States.” Subjecting Natives to the “same laws” as other American citizens in effect dissolves their governments, institutions and land holdings. In essence, the resolution meant to terminate Native Nations as sovereign, culturally distinct entities.

The Kinzua Dam and Allegheny Reservoir. (Photo by Maria Diaz-Gonzalez/PublicSource)

Seneca people fought against the Kinzua Dam while the federal government held the position that their entire nation should cease to exist. Even the settlement act that the Seneca Nation negotiated with Congress in 1964, which secured funds for the relocation and rehabilitation of Seneca communities, demanded that the Seneca Nation submit a plan for its own termination by 1967.

The Seneca Nation was not terminated. Gordon explains that his people always consider seven generations. “ The way it was explained to me,” he says, “it represents that first generation that we never saw … and the seventh generation, we will not see.” In other words, the first of those seven generations is one’s great-great grandparents, and the last is one’s great-great grandchildren. According to Caleb Abrams, a young Seneca filmmaker, Seneca leaders used the settlement funds to create a foundation for their future generations by building robust infrastructure, education and social programs.

The Allegany Territory is a site of resurgence. “I feel like I’ve noticed a … growing movement across Indian Country in Native communities all across Turtle Island — North America, as they call it,” says Abrams, “where indigenous people of all ages are taking steps to reclaim language and various cultural practices and integrate these things … into their everyday life.”

Gordon has been witnessing a revival of Seneca culture among the nation’s young people: “More of the children want to know who they are … a lot of our children, if you go to ceremony, you’ll see that three-quarters of those in attendance are children.”

The Seneca Nation has strengthened so as to never lose a part of itself again — for this generation and countless after.


SOCIETY

Each town in the tribe contained several long, bark covered communal houses that had both tribal and political significance. Inside each house several families lived in semi-private rooms or areas and the center areas were used as social and political meeting places. They lived in scattered villages that were organized by a system of matrilineal clans.

A calendar cycle of ceremonies reflected their agricultural, hunting, and gathering. The men hunted, cleared fields, traded and made war. The woman gathered various wild plant foods and tended gardens. They had a great agricultural economy. Their main crop was corn, but they also grew pumpkins, beans, tobacco, maize, and squash and later on they grew orchard fruits like apples and peaches. Crafts were also made. Fine pottery, splint baskets, mats of corn husk and used wampum as a medium of exchange.


1. Life and Works

Lucius Annaeus Seneca (c. 1 BCE &ndash CE 65) was born in Corduba (Spain) and educated&mdashin rhetoric and philosophy&mdashin Rome. Seneca had a highly successful, and quite dramatic, political career. Even a brief (and by necessity incomplete) list of events in his life indicates that Seneca had ample occasion for reflection on violent emotions, the dangers of ambition, and the ways in which the life of politics differs from the life of philosophy&mdashamong the topics pursued in his writings. He was accused of adultery with the Emperor Caligula&rsquos sister and therefore exiled to Corsica in 41 having been Nero&rsquos &ldquotutor&rdquo in his adolescent years, he was among Nero&rsquos advisors after his accession in 54 Seneca continued to be an advisor in times that became increasingly difficult for anyone in the close proximity of Nero, in spite of requests from his side to be granted permission to retire he was charged with complicity in the Pisonian conspiracy to murder Nero, and compelled to commit suicide in 65 (on Seneca&rsquos life, see Griffin 1992 Maurach 2000 Veyne 2003 Wilson 2014 Romm 2014 on his perspective on Nero, see Braund 2009).

Seneca&rsquos philosophical writings have often been interpreted with an eye to his biography: how could his discussions of the healing powers of philosophy not reflect his own life? However, as personal as Seneca&rsquos style often is, his writings are not autobiographical (Edwards 1997). Seneca creates a literary persona for himself. He discusses the questions that occupy him in a way that invites his readers to think about issues in their own life, rather than in Seneca&rsquos life.

The writings that we shall primarily be concerned with are: the Moral Letters to Lucilius (Ad Lucilium epistulae morales), the Moral Essays (&lsquodialogi&rsquo or dialogues is the somewhat misleading title given in our principal manuscript, the Codex Ambrosianus, to the twelve books making up ten of these works, including three &ldquoconsolatory&rdquo writings among the Essays are two further works that came down to us in other manuscripts), and the Natural Questions (Naturales quaestiones) (on the full range of Seneca&rsquos writings, see Volk and Williams 2006, &ldquoIntroduction,&rdquo and Ker 2006 a comprehensive overview, with individual chapters on specific writings and themes, is offered in Heil and Damschen 2014).

A brief note is in order here on the relative chronology of Seneca&rsquos works, which is hard to establish given that we know so little about Seneca&rsquos life apart from his imperial service, as noted above, and its consequences. The Consolation to Marcia is probably the earliest surviving piece of Seneca&rsquos work. Similarly, the Consolation to His Mother Helvia and the Consolation to Polybius are considered early (perhaps dating to 43 or 44), the former actually being composed on the occasion of Seneca&rsquos banishment to Corsica. All other surviving works seem to be written later, mostly after Seneca&rsquos return to Rome in 49 from his Corsican exile. Among the Moral Essays, the only one we can date with some certainty is On Mercy, an essay in which Seneca directly addresses Nero in the early days of his reign (55 or 56). The Moral Letters to Lucilius as well as the Natural Questions are the product of the last years of Seneca&rsquos life, the brief period (62&ndash65) that Seneca spent in retirement before following Nero&rsquos order to commit suicide (on the dating of Seneca&rsquos writings see the introductions in Cooper/Procopé 1995, and Griffin 1992).

In the Imperial Period, Stoicism had significant influence on Roman literature, and Seneca&rsquos tragedies are of particular interest here. In Seneca&rsquos case, we do not see a poet appropriating or integrating Stoic ideas, but actually a Stoic philosopher writing poetry himself. The precise way in which Seneca&rsquos Stoicism is relevant to his tragedies is controversial. Traditionally scholars debated whether and why a philosopher like Seneca would write poetry at all&mdashto some this seemed so unlikely that prior to Erasmus it was thought that there were two &lsquoSenecas,&rsquo the philosopher and the tragedian (cf. Fantham 1982, 15). Today it is widely assumed that some of the themes in Seneca&rsquos tragedies are at least related to his philosophical views. Seneca&rsquos interest in ethics and psychology&mdashfirst and foremost perhaps the destructive effects of excessive emotion&mdashseems to figure in his plays, and perhaps his natural philosophy plays an equally important role (cf. Fantham 1982, 15&ndash19 Fischer 2014 Gill 2003, 56&ndash58 Rosenmeyer 1989 Schiesaro 2003 Volk 2006 on the range of Seneca&rsquos writings, see Volk and Williams 2006). In this article, we do not consider his tragedies, but only his prose writings. Some recent work on Seneca suggests that one should see his prose writings and his tragedies as complementary sides of his thought (Wray 2009). The tragedies are arguably darker than the prose writings, and topics on which Seneca seems to have a consoling philosophical view are explored in rather less consoling ways. For example, death is seen as a liberation in Seneca&rsquos philosophical writings. But in the tragedies, death can appear as a transition to even greater sufferings, or, equally bad, the dead seem to demand ever new deaths, to provide them with fresh companions in the underworld (Busch 2009).


Historical Cemeteries

1640 East & West Road
(North side of East and West Road near Leydecker Road - next to Water Tower)
Dates: 1821 - 1951
Status: Inactive (maintenance performed by Town of West Seneca)
History: aka German Evangelical Cemetery 2 - Founded in 1821 by the German Evangelical Church, the cemetery was maintained until the church burned down in 1951. The congregation relocated to Main Street leaving the cemetery inactive - Further history unknown
Tombstones are illegible, fallen, or broken

Blossom Cemetery
7 Borden Road
(Seneca Creek Road - west of Transit Road)
Dates: 1874 -
Status: Active
History: aka Blossom Road Cemetery - This cemetery was established by the Evangelical Cemetery Society, members of the Blossom Evangelical Church. The cemetery sits on a tract of land that was once owned by the Ebenezer Society (Community of True Inspiration).

Fourteen Holy Helper Roman Catholic Cemetery
1345 Indian Church Road (located behind the school)
Dates: 1864 -
Status: Active
History:

Lein Road Cemetery
Lein Road
(Between Center Road and the Aurora Expressway)
Dates: 1865 - 1916
Status: Inactive - Not maintained
History: aka German Evangelical Cemetery 1 - Further history unknown
Henry G. Lein (former postmaster at the Leydecker Rd. post office in the late 1800’s and father of former Supervisor Hencry C. Lein) lived on Lein Rd. across from Shultz Rd. is buried here.


Lower Ebenezer Cemetery

Main Street (Between Mill Road and Seneca Street)
Dates: 1845 - 1867
Status: Inactive
History: aka Main Street Cemetery
Established by the Community of True Inspirationists, the cemetery is the final resting place for 60 known members of the Ebenezer Society. Inspirationists of note that are buried in this cemetery are Peter Mook (senior elder over all Inspirationist congregations in Germany) Casper Murbach (Elder), Christmann Urban (Elder), Heinrich Kraemer (son-in-law of Christian Metz) and Johannes Schuener.


Middle Ebenezer Cemetery

Located on Charles E. Burchfield Nature & Art Center grounds
(Union Road and Clinton Street)
Dates: 1843-1863
Status: Inactive
History: aka Ebenezer Society - Gardenville Cemetery
Established by the Ebenezer Society

Mount Hope Cemetery
124 Graymont (West side of Union Road, south of Thruway)
Dates: 1888 -
Status: Active
History:

St. John's Evangelical Lutheran Cemetery
100 Seneca Creek Road
Dates: 1865 -
Status: Active
History: Henry C. Lein (former West Seneca Supervisor between 1904-1909 and 1922-1925) is buried in this cemetery which is almost directly across Seneca Creek Rd. from his former home.

St. Matthew's Cemetery
180 Old French Road (Entrance available on Clinton Street)
822-1960
Dates: 1875 -
Status: Active
History: Originally established in 1875 to serve the congregation of St. Matthew's Church of Hamburg, New York. Today it is a Nondenominational cemetery serving the needs of all faiths in the Western New York area

On May 26, 1875, John Bugelman, a 21 day old infant, was the first burial in St. Matthew's Cemetery. "Old Shep", also known as the "Hermit of Leydecker Road" is also buried in this cemetery. Old Shep was originally from Missouri and lived along the banks of Cazenovia Creek in a small cave. Eventually he built a small shack on the Kloiber Farm and became well known for his fondness of people and animals. Old Shep was killed when his shack caught on fire, and having no next-of-kin, a pauper's grave awaited him. However, through the generosity of the Lang Family, Old Shep was given a deserving funeral and is buried in Section L of St. Matthew's Cemetery.
Web Site: http://www.stmatthewscemetery.com/

St. Paul's Lutheran Cemetery
1500 Seneca Creek Road at Transit Road
Dates: 1849 -
Status: Active
History: Established by the Ebenezer Society
The Ebenezer Amana and the Upper Ebenezer Cemetery were incorporated into the St. Paul Cemetery.

St. Peter's Union Church of Christ Cemetery
1475 Orchard Park Road (near Berg Road behind church)
Dates: Unknown
Status: Active
History:


Trinity Lutheran Church Cemetery

146 Reserve Road
(716) 674-9188
Dates: 1879 -
Status: Active
History: The Trinity Lutheran Cemetery property was acquired in 1849 as part of a parcel of land on which Trinity Luteran Church was built followed two years later by Trinity Lutheran School. The Church has always maintained the cemetery.

Trinity's oldest member Conrad Diemer, born in 1791, was laid to rest in the cemetery in 1879 at the age of 87. Three members of the Langner family were among the earliest of burials - 1854, 1860, and 1868. Another family, the Bergs (late 1800s) has been memorialized in West Seneca history. two roads in the town bear their name.

The cemetery is the burial site of Christian Ulrich, a member of the posse that tracked down and captured President Abraham Lincoln's assassin, John Wilkes Booth in Bowling Green, Virginia on April 26, 1865.


The complicated history of the Kinzua Dam and how it changed life for the Seneca people

The Kinzua Dam, which protects Pittsburgh from flooding and pollution, came at a steep price for the Seneca Nation of Indians.

Looking upstream, the Kinzua Dam seems to protrude brusquely from the Allegheny River.

Nestled securely between the rolling hills of Warren County, Pennsylvania, the dam holds the river back. Behind it, the resulting Allegheny Reservoir stretches 27 miles long and 120 feet deep.

The Pittsburgh District of the United States Army Corps of Engineers completed construction of the Kinzua Dam in 1965 and manages it to this day. In 1936, Congress authorized the building of the dam as part of a system of reservoirs on the Monongahela and Allegheny rivers.

According to Rose Reilly, a biologist with the Pittsburgh District of the Army Corps of Engineers, the Kinzua Dam has two congressional purposes: flood control and water quality improvement for the Pittsburgh region.

(Map created by Blue Raster)

The formidable Kinzua Dam, which protects Pittsburgh from flooding and pollution, came at a steep price for the Seneca Nation of Indians. They lost nine communities and 10,000 acres of their Allegany Territory to the dam. Pressure from climate change, however, could threaten the protection gained from the Seneca Nation's coerced sacrifice.

In 1956, plans for the Kinzua Dam — which for the previous two decades had been vague and nebulous — began to move forward. Twenty years earlier, in the infamous St. Patrick's Day Flood, the entire Ohio River Basin had experienced catastrophic flooding. In Pittsburgh alone, water levels rose 21 feet above the usual flood level. In one day.

The devastation caused by the flood lent urgency to long-standing calls for a flood control project on the Allegheny River. Congress responded by passing the Flood Control Act of 1936, which paved the way for the eventual construction of the Kinzua Dam. Fervor for the project waned for many years as the United States became embroiled in military conflict. By the mid-1950s, Congress and the Army Corps of Engineers were ready to move forward. Dennis Bowen Sr., a Seneca survivor of Kinzua Dam, considers dam building an essential part of the federal government's post-war strategy. "Keep in mind," he says, "that, by the early 1950s, this was after World War II and the Korean War. There were a lot of white families that needed jobs, they needed industry, and those factories, those industries all across the country needed electric power. And so why not steal Indian land and build a dam and make hydroelectric power?"

In October 1956, against the Seneca Nation's wishes, the Army Corps of Engineers began surveying Allegany Territory land in preparation for the Kinzua Dam. The proposed structure would require the flooding or condemnation of 10,000 acres of the Allegany Territory.

Much was at stake in the Kinzua Dam challenge: losing their land would eventually cost around 600 Seneca people their homes. In the balance hung communities like Red House, New York. Bowen grew up there, on the Allegany Territory. Red House was a small town that spanned the Allegheny River connected by the eponymous Red House Bridge. He remembers his town as self-sufficient its residents regularly canned vegetables, cut firewood, fished and hunted. Living there, he was happy.

Red House lay in the Kinzua Dam's "take area" — defined by the Army Corps of Engineers as any land behind the structure that fell below 1,365 feet of elevation. All of that land became subject to a flowage easement, meaning it could experience flooding due to the operations of the reservoir. Some of it is permanently inundated, construction or habitation is prohibited on the rest. The Army Corps used the flowage easement to forcefully relocate the inhabitants of the take area, including those of Red House and other towns. They then burned the towns. According to Bowen, his childhood home is the first one shown succumbing to the flames in the 2017 documentary Lake of Betrayal. Many of the markers of traditional Seneca life, like their houses, wood stoves and gardens, were consumed in such fires. The losses, both physical and intangible, reverberated across the Seneca Nation.

Stephen Gordon, a Seneca elder, grew up in a town called Coldspring, which was also within Kinzua Dam's take area. In Coldspring, he was surrounded by fluent speakers of the Seneca language. According to Gordon, his great-grandmother, Hannah Abrams, championed the continued use of their language in the home. She would say to his mother, "You leave that English language at the road. You don't bring it into this house. It isn't spoken here."

In his mother's time and in his own, the New York state public education system aggressively pushed assimilation for Native children. The education system, Gordon relates, hoped to erase his community's indigeneity. "They wanted us to become a part of the melting pot. And in order to do that, it was important that the education system drill it into us that you have to learn English, you have to learn mathematics, you have to learn history. And that your history doesn't matter," he says.

The Kinzua Dam spillway. (Credit: Maria Diaz-Gonzalez/PublicSource)

Despite this, the Seneca language persisted, especially among older adults. Many Seneca elders however, passed away in the aftermath of the condemnation and burning of their homelands. They died, Bowen stresses, of broken hearts.

The devastation nearly stifled the passing down of the Seneca language. "That was the signal," Gordon says. He describes 1964 as "the signal of change, of leaving our past behind."

With an entire world at stake — a homeland, a way of life, a language — the Seneca Nation did not want to cede its territory and launched a legal case to protect it.

The Seneca Nation grounded its legal defense in the Treaty of Canandaigua. The 1794 treaty affirmed a "permanent friendship" between the fledgling United States and the Hodinöhsö:ni (Iroquois Confederacy, of which the Seneca Nation was a member).

President George Washington ordered the negotiation of the treaty with the hope of preventing a military alliance between the Hodinöhsö:ni and Ohio Territory Natives, which would have posed an existential threat to the United States. The treaty established in writing the extent of the Seneca Nation's territory: an area that encompassed the entirety of western New York. It declared of the land that "the United States will never claim the same, nor disturb the Seneka Nation . in the free use and enjoyment thereof: but it shall remain theirs, until they choose to sell the same to the people of the United States, who have the right to purchase."

Robert Odawi Porter, a lawyer and former president of the Seneca Nation, asserts that treaties with Native Nations are legally the same as treaties with international ones. They are negotiated by the president, and ratified by a two-thirds vote in the Senate. They also carry the binding force of federal law.

In 1956, the Seneca Nation believed in the words of the treaty, and in the significance of George Washington's legally binding promises. Seneca leaders asserted that their lands could not be surveyed or condemned by the Army Corps of Engineers because the Treaty of Canandaigua remained in effect. In early 1957, however, a federal court decided against them. The judge in United States v. 21,250 Acres of Land Etc. ruled that the Seneca Nation could not bar federal agents from entering its territory and could not resist the taking of its land via eminent domain. The ruling declared that the Treaty of Canandaigua could not actually protect Seneca Nation land from seizure because it "cannot rise above the power of Congress to legislate."

Seneca leaders appealed the ruling. In doing so, they challenged centuries of racist legal precedent. The judge in United States v. 21,250 Acres of Land Etc. cited the 1903 Supreme Court Case Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock to affirm the federal government's right to expropriate treaty-protected reservation lands. The opinion in Lone Wolf granted Congress the right to unilaterally abrogate an Indian treaty, arguing that that no treaty could be interpreted to "materially limit and qualify the controlling authority of Congress . when the necessity might be urgent for a partition and disposal of the tribal lands."

The Supreme Court leaned on racist notions about Native Americans to defend this decision. The opinion cited a passage from an earlier Supreme Court case Beecher v. Wetherby. The passage stated that in exercising its power to displace Natives, the federal government would presumably "be governed by such considerations of justice as would control a Christian people in their treatment of an ignorant and dependent race."

By 1959, these centuries-old forces closed the Seneca Nation's legal options against the Kinzua Dam.

The Seneca people offered yet another way.

The Allegheny Reservoir, also known as Kinzua Lake, was created by the Kinzua Dam. (Credit: Maria Diaz-Gonzalez/PublicSource)

In 1957, Seneca leaders hired civil engineer Arthur E. Morgan, the first chairman of the Tennessee Valley Authority, to explore alternate flood control solutions for the Pittsburgh region. Over the next three years, Morgan and the Seneca Nation argued in court, on television and before Congress that the Kinzua Dam was not an optimal solution to flooding in the Ohio River Basin.

Instead, Morgan put forth the Conewango-Cattaraugus Plan. In it, he proposed a diversion dam near Coldspring, New York, to divide the flow of the Allegheny River. According to a Buffalo Courier-Express newspaper article from April 10, 1960, Morgan's dam would reroute some of the river's water into two outlets: Lake Erie and Conewango Creek by Waterboro, New York. On its way toward Lake Erie, diverted water would fill a natural depression in Conewango Valley, forming a recreational lake.

Morgan held that the Conewango-Cattaraugus plan had several advantages over the Kinzua Dam. He contended that having Lake Erie as an outlet provided his plan with much greater water storage capacity than the dam. This would afford the Pittsburgh region increased protection from flood waters and create greater opportunities for hydropower exploration, he says. The engineer also affirmed that the lake at Conewango Valley would be far more stable than the Allegheny Reservoir, whose seasonal fluctuations would reveal several miles of "unsightly mud flats" every year.

Morgan and the Seneca Nation's efforts succeeded in delaying the construction of the dam and rallying moderate government and strong public support for their cause. Luminaries like Eleanor Roosevelt voiced support for a resolution to the region's flooding problems that could leave Seneca lands undisturbed. Johnny Cash recorded a song "As Long as the Grass Shall Grow," chronicling the battle against the Kinzua Dam. But it was not enough. In late 1957, the Corps hired engineering firm Tippetts-Abbett-McCarthy-Stratton [TAMS] to evaluate its plans and Morgan's proposal. TAMS concluded that the Conewango-Cattaraugus plan would be too expensive. Morgan contended that TAMS was biased in favor of the Corps because the federal agency was its biggest client.

On Oct. 22, 1960, groundbreaking for the Kinzua Dam began, promising to drown an invaluable part of the Seneca's world.

The federal government has a long history of betraying Native people for American gain. In Bowen's words, "Indian people have always been the supermarket for America."

The Allegheny Reservoir, also known as Kinzua Lake, was created by the Kinzua Dam. (Credit: Maria Diaz-Gonzalez/PublicSource)

At the Kinzua Dam, the Seneca Nation's loss protects the lower Allegheny valley from flooding and from the pollution of Pennsylvania's heritage industries. The Army Corps of Engineers do this by varying the amount of water in the Allegheny Reservoir: they sequester water during periods of heavy precipitation and release it during dry spells. The former prevents downstream flooding and the latter dilutes pollution in the river's water.

Dams, like people, have lifespans. According to Reilly, the Corps biologist, the buildup of sediment (siltation) defines the lifespan of a dam and reservoir system.

Doug Helman, a supervisory natural resource manager with the Pittsburgh District of the Army Corps of Engineers, explains that when moving river water approaches a reservoir, it slows down. "And when the water slows down, then those nutrients and chemicals and silt drop down to the bottom of the river."

Over the years, the buildup of such (sometimes toxic) materials can fill an entire reservoir with sediment and render it obsolete as a method of flood control. The Allegheny Reservoir is protected from siltation by its length most of the river's sediment drops off near the reservoir's northern border in the Seneca's Allegany Territory, over 20 miles away from the Kinzua Dam.

The system however, may face mounting pressure from climate change. According to members of the Pittsburgh District Army Corps of Engineers, the region has in recent years experienced record rainfall. Helman warns that these conditions may require that the Corps release reservoir water from the Kinzua Dam at a greater rate than they would like. This would likely increase flooding downstream.

Areas upstream of, and not protected by Kinzua Dam are also affected by the changing weather. Mike Debes, a floodplain manager with the Army Corps, says the Allegheny River valley's development history is a leading cause of its flooding problems. "As more and more homes and roads and impervious structures and roads are built, more and more water is working its way into the small creeks, and more and more flooding is occurring."

Fish near the base of Kinzua Dam. (Credit: Maria Diaz-Gonzalez/PublicSource)

The growing imperviousness of the river's floodplain, coupled with climate change, are bringing regular floods to communities that had rarely experienced them before. Those flood waters eventually find their way to the Allegheny Reservoir and Kinzua Dam, a system Reilly says is large enough to handle them, though it was built using climate data available before and during the 1960s.

Debes says the education public officials and community members will need to deal with the wetter reality of the Allegheny River valley will take a lot of time. But the need is pressing. Homes, towns, communities — the very things the water now threatens — are, in Debes' words, "one of the real basic things in life."

The Kinzua Dam was built during a time in American politics known as the Termination Era: a period after World War II in which the country tried to assimilate all Native people. To this end, in 1953, Congress adopted House Concurrent Resolution 108, which called for dissolution of all Native Nations in New York, Florida, California and Texas as well as other nations it specifically named from other states.

The resolution sought to "make the Indians within the territorial limits of the United States subject to the same laws and entitled to the same privileges and responsibilities as are applicable to other citizens of the United States." Subjecting Natives to the "same laws" as other American citizens in effect dissolves their governments, institutions and land holdings. In essence, the resolution meant to terminate Native Nations as sovereign, culturally distinct entities.

Seneca people fought against the Kinzua Dam while the federal government held the position that their entire nation should cease to exist. Even the settlement act that the Seneca Nation negotiated with Congress in 1964, which secured funds for the relocation and rehabilitation of Seneca communities, demanded that the Seneca Nation submit a plan for its own termination by 1967.

The Seneca Nation was not terminated. Gordon explains that his people always consider seven generations. "The way it was explained to me," he says, "it represents that first generation that we never saw . and the seventh generation, we will not see." In other words, the first of those seven generations is one's great-great grandparents, and the last is one's great-great grandchildren. According to Caleb Abrams, a young Seneca filmmaker, Seneca leaders used the settlement funds to create a foundation for their future generations by building robust infrastructure, education and social programs.

The Allegany Territory is a site of resurgence. "I feel like I've noticed a . growing movement across Indian Country in Native communities all across Turtle Island — North America, as they call it," says Abrams, "where indigenous people of all ages are taking steps to reclaim language and various cultural practices and integrate these things . into their everyday life."

Gordon has been witnessing a revival of Seneca culture among the nation's young people: "More of the children want to know who they are . a lot of our children, if you go to ceremony, you'll see that three-quarters of those in attendance are children."

The Seneca Nation has strengthened so as to never lose a part of itself again — for this generation and countless after.


Watch the video: Карусель (August 2022).