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No. 102 'Ceylon' Squadron (RAF): Second World War

No. 102 'Ceylon' Squadron (RAF): Second World War


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No. 102 Squadron (RAF) during the Second World War

Aircraft - Locations - Group and Duty - Books

No. 102 "Ceylon" Squadron was a heavy bomber squadron that served with Bomber Command for most of the Second World War, equipped first with the Whitley and then with the Handley Page Halifax. The squadron had been formed in 1935 from B Flight of No. 7 Squadron, and had originally been equipped with the Heyford bomber, but the first Whitleys arrived in 1938, and the squadron would operate that aircraft until the start of 1942.

At the outbreak of war No. 102 Squadron began leaflet-dropping raids over Germany, but like the rest of Bomber Command was not able to begin bombing raids until the Germans invaded Norway in April 1940. From then until the end of the war the squadron took part in the strategic bombing campaign, with only two breaks.

The first came in September-October 1940, when the squadron was loaned to Coastal Command, and spent six weeks carrying out convoy escort duties from Prestwick.

The second came at the start of 1942, when the squadron was in the process of converting from the Whitley to the Halifax. The last Whitley operation was flown on 31 January 1942, but the conversion took longer than expected, and the first Halifax raid did not take place until 14 April 1942.

At the end of the war the squadron moved to Transport Command, and in September began to prepare for a move to India, but this never came and the squadron was disbanded on 28 February 1946.

Aircraft
October 1938-January 1940: Armstrong Whitworth Whitley III
November 1930-February 1942: Armstrong Whitworth Whitley V
December 1941-March 1944: Handley Page Halifax B.Mk II
March 1944 to September 1945: Handley Page Halifax B.Mk III
February 1945 to September 1945: Handley Page Halifax B.Mk VI

Location
11 July 1938-25 August 1940: Driffield
25 August-1 September 1940: Leeming
1 September-10 October 1940: Prestwick
10 October-15 November 1940: Linton-on-Ouse
15 November 1940-15 November 1941: Topcliffe
15 November 1941-7 June 1942: Dalton
7 June-7 August 1942: Topcliffe
7 August 1942-8 September 1945: Pocklington

Squadron Codes: DY

Group and Duty
On 26 September 1939: Reserve bomber squadron with No. 4 Group
By December 1941, to 7 May 1945: Bomber squadron with No.4 Group
From 8 May 1945: Transport Command

Books

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No. 17 Squadron RAF

Number 17 Squadron (sometimes written as No. XVII Squadron), currently No. 17 Test and Evaluation Squadron (TES), is a squadron of the Royal Air Force. It was reformed on 12 April 2013 at Edwards Air Force Base, California, as the Operational Evaluation Unit (OEU) for the Lockheed Martin F-35B Lightning.

    (1915–1917)* (1916) (1916-1918)
  • France and Low Countries (1939–1940) (1940)
  • Home Defence (1940–1945) (1940) (1942) (1943) (1944–1945) (1991)*

RAF Third Tactical Air Force

The RAF Third Tactical Air Force (Third TAF), which was formed in South Asia in December 1943, was one of three tactical air forces formed by the Royal Air Force during the Second World War. It was made up of squadrons and personnel from the RAF and the air forces of the British Commonwealth. Third TAF was formed shortly after the establishment of South East Asia Command to provide close air support to the Fourteenth Army.

It was first formed on 19 December 1943 designated the Tactical Air Force (Burma) and renamed as the Third TAF on 28 December 1943. Along with parts of the USAAF Tenth Air Force, it was subordinate to Joint Allied Eastern Air Command which was also formed in December 1943. Ώ]

As the Air Force was formed, it was felt that at last British forces could go over to the offensive against the Japanese in the Burma Campaign. A start was made towards establishing a general offensive in Arakan in early 1943, but this was forestalled by a Japanese offensive. The Japanese were decisively beaten, but they shifted the focus of their attack to central Burma. Third TAF gave sterling service to Fourteenth Army during the Battle of Kohima and the Battle of Imphal, strafing and bombing the besieging Japanese troops, often at very low level.

After the defeat of the Japanese by IV Corps and XXXIII Corps in Assam, the monsoon intervened before many counterattacks could take place. After the enforced period of reduced operations, the Third TAF supported the advance of Fourteenth Army against the Japanese forces. However, command arrangement changes at the end of 1944 cutting short the life of the Third TAF. It was redesignated HQ RAF Bengal and Burma on 4 December 1944. Ώ]

The Third TAF had two commanders, Air Marshal John Baldwin up until 15 August 1944, and then Air Marshal Sir Alec Coryton.


The Last Post Ceremony commemorating the service of (428858) Pilot Officer George York, No. 102 Squadron (RAF), Second World War.

The Last Post Ceremony is presented in the Commemorative area of the Australian War Memorial each day. The ceremony commemorates more than 102,000 Australians who have given their lives in war and other operations and whose names are recorded on the Roll of Honour. At each ceremony the story behind one of the names on the Roll of Honour is told. Hosted by Joane Smedley, the story for this day was on (428858) Pilot Officer George York, No. 102 Squadron (RAF), Second World War.

428858 Pilot Officer George York, No. 102 Squadron (RAF)
Missing (Believed Killed in Action) 13 August 144

Today we remember and pay tribute to Pilot Officer George York.

George York was born on 5 February 1915 to George and Ann York of the Sydney suburb of Woollahra. Young George attended Woollahra Public School and Sydney Boy’s High School, and enjoyed wrestling, swimming, football and tennis. Following his education, York worked as a manager at an importing company and lived in the suburb of Kingsford. In June 1938 he married Margaret, and the couple had one child together, Ronald Bruce York, born in 1941.

York enlisted in the Royal Australian Air Force on 10 October 1942, and undertook some early training at Bradfield Park and Ascot Vale. On 15 January 1943 he embarked from Melbourne for Canada, where he would participate in the Empire Air Training Scheme. The Empire Air Training Scheme was a joint British and Dominion program designed to ensure that enough trained airmen were available to keep up with demand in Europe. York undertook courses in bombing, gunnery and navigation, while in North America took the opportunity to visit Niagara Falls, New York and Kentucky.

In August 1943, he departed for the United Kingdom, where he served in the Royal Air Force and continued training. He trained at various times in southern England, on the Isle of Man, in Scotland, and in Yorkshire. He often wrote to his family at home in Australia, especially about how much he missed his friends and family.

York’s extensive training and good record saw him promoted first to sergeant, then flight sergeant, and later to pilot officer.

In 1944 York joined No. 102 “Ceylon” Squadron RAF, and commenced a conversion course to fly Halifax Bombers. On 11 June 1944, just days after D-Day, he took part in his first operational bombing flight over occupied Europe.

On the night of 12/13 August 1944, York served as an air bomber in a major raid on the German city of Russelsheim, near Frankfurt. Nearly 300 Allied Halifax and Lancaster bombers participated in the attack. Twenty would not return home.

In the early hours of 13 August 1944, York’s MZ647 Halifax came under attack from a German fighter near Rehborn, and crashed into a hill near the small town’s railway station. All eight crew members died in the crash. York was 29 years old.

Members of the small town of Rehborn buried the remains of the airmen in the local cemetery. After the war, their remains were moved by British authorities to the larger Rheinberg War Cemetery in Germany, where over 3,300 Commonwealth servicemen of the Second World War are now commemorated.

In the immediate aftermath of the crash, the eight members of the crew were originally reported as missing, and it was not until after the war that York’s family, including his wife and young son, received official confirmation of his death. His grave now reads: “Dearly loved & missed by loving wife Margaret and son Bruce”.

A member of York’s No. 102 Squadron later wrote of him: “He was, I think, the best bombardier in the Flight having completed many trips safely, and he had the complete confidence of the rest of the crew. Everybody who knew him liked him immensely, and he will be sorely missed by the Squadron.”

His name is listed on the Roll of Honour on my left, among some 40,000 Australians who died while serving in the Second World War.

This is but one of the many stories of service and sacrifice told here at the Australian War Memorial. We now remember Pilot Officer George York, who gave his life for us, for our freedoms, and in the hope of a better world.


History

Formation in World War I

No. 158 Squadron RAF was first formed on 9 May 1918, and the squadron was originally to be equipped with Sopwith Snipe fighters, but this was postponed and the squadron eventually formed at Upper Heyford on 4 September 1918, equipped with Sopwith Salamander ground attack aircraft. The squadron arrived too late to see action during the war, and disbanded on 20 November 1918.

Reformation and World War II

The squadron reformed at RAF Driffield on 14 February 1942, via the renumbering of No. 104 Squadron, which was equipped with the Vickers Wellington medium bomber and 158 sqn used these on night raids to Germany and occupied France. [ 10 ]

In June 1942 the squadron re-equipped with the Halifax B.Mk.II heavy bombers and moved to RAF East Moor. On 6 November 1942 the squadron moved to RAF Rufforth, followed by a move to RAF Lissett on 28 February 1943. In January 1944 the squadron had re-equipped with the Halifax B.Mk.III and the squadrons 'C' flight was used to form No. 640 Squadron at Leconfield.

By 7 May 1945 World War II in Europe had finished, and the squadron was transferred to RAF Transport Command, re-equipped with the Short Stirling Mk.V. The squadron moved to Stradishall on 17 August 1945, where it disbanded on 31 December 1945.

One of the squadrons aircraft, a Handley page Halifax B.Mk.III, serial no. LV907, coded NP-F and nicknamed "Friday the 13th", completed a remarkable 128 operational missions. Incredibly this precious aircraft was not saved from the scrapheap after being displayed on Oxford street in London, [ 3 ] only a section of the nose from the aircraft was saved and is exhibited at the RAF Museum Hendon. The Halifax that is displayed at the Yorkshire Air Museum is made up of parts of various aircraft and painted as LV907, in honour of the aircraft and its crew.

On 11 November 1945 a Stirling C.5 operated by the squadron was departing for the United Kingdom when it crashed on take off from RAF Castel Benito in Libya after the wing caught fire, 21 soldiers and five crew were killed, one person survived. [ 11 ]


Reformation

The squadron was reformed on 1 February 1929, when the coastal reconnaissance flight based at RAF Cattewater (later RAF Mount Batten), Plymouth, equipped with five Supermarine Southampton flying boats, was renumbered. It carried out a regular routine of training, interspersed with a series of formation cruises, including one to the Mediterranean in 1932 and to the Baltic the next year. [4] [13]

It received Supermarine Scapas to replace the elderly Southamptons from August 1935, and in September, it transferred to Aboukir, Egypt, as part of the United Kingdom's response to the Italian invasion of Ethiopia, remaining there until August 1936, when the Squadron returned to Plymouth. It again re-equipped, this time with Saro Londons, from October that year. The squadron continued its routine of training and formation cruises, visiting Gibraltar in August 1937, and visiting Australia to celebrate the 150th anniversary of the founding of Sydney in 1938, being away from Britain from December 1937 to April 1938. [4] [14]


History [ edit | edit source ]

Formation [ edit | edit source ]

Formed on 1 June 1940 at Pembroke Dock, after flying from the Netherlands in eight Fokker T.VIIIW twin-engined patrol seaplanes, as part of Coastal Command. The squadron flew coastal and anti-submarine patrols in the Fokkers until they became unserviceable due to lack of spares and were re-equipped with Ansons in August 1940 and supplemented in October with Hudsons. Due to insufficient personnel, the squadron absorbed No. 321 (Netherlands) Squadron on 18 January 1941.

To Bomber Command [ edit | edit source ]

The squadron moved to RAF Leuchars on 1 October 1941, re-equipped with Hudson IIIs, flying patrols and anti-shipping attacks in the North Sea. Detachments were located at RAF Silloth and RAF Carew Cheriton until 24 April 1942 when the squadron moved to RAF Bircham Newton. The squadron was reassigned to Bomber Command and loaned to No.2 Group on 15 March 1943. The squadron was also re-equipped with Mitchells and moved to RAF Methwold.

In the 2nd Tactical Air Force [ edit | edit source ]

Belgian aircrew of a 320 Squadron Mitchell bomber at B58/Melsbroek, Belgium

On 30 March 1943, the squadron moved to RAF Attlebridge, then was reassigned to Second Tactical Air Force on 1 June with the squadron attacking enemy communications targets and airfields. The squadron relocated to RAF Lasham on 30 August and to RAF Dunsfold on 18 February 1944. After the liberation of Belgium, the squadron was moved to Melsbroek (B.58), Belgium on 18 October and then on 30 April 1945 to Achmer (B.110), Germany.

Back Home [ edit | edit source ]

The squadron was passed to the control of the Dutch Naval Aviation Service (Marine Luchtvaart Dienst) on 2 August 1945, keeping the same squadron number No. 320 Squadron MLD. The squadron was disbanded in 2005, due to budget cuts.


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History [ edit | edit source ]

Formation in World War I [ edit | edit source ]

No. 158 Squadron RAF was first formed on 9 May 1918, and the squadron was originally to be equipped with Sopwith Snipe fighters, but this was postponed and the squadron eventually formed at Upper Heyford on 4 September 1918, equipped with Sopwith Salamander ground attack aircraft. The squadron arrived too late to see action during the war, and disbanded on 20 November 1918.

Reformation and World War II [ edit | edit source ]

158 Squadron Halifax "Friday the 13th" at RAF Lissett

The squadron reformed at RAF Driffield on 14 February 1942, via the renumbering of No. 104 Squadron, which was equipped with the Vickers Wellington medium bomber and 158 sqn used these on night raids to Germany and occupied France. ⎖]

In June 1942 the squadron re-equipped with the Halifax B.Mk.II heavy bombers and moved to RAF East Moor. On 6 November 1942 the squadron moved to RAF Rufforth, followed by a move to RAF Lissett on 28 February 1943. In January 1944 the squadron had re-equipped with the Halifax B.Mk.III and the squadrons 'C' flight was used to form No. 640 Squadron at Leconfield.

By 7 May 1945 World War II in Europe had finished, and the squadron was transferred to RAF Transport Command, re-equipped with the Short Stirling Mk.V. The squadron moved to Stradishall on 17 August 1945, where it disbanded on 31 December 1945.

One of the squadrons aircraft, a Handley page Halifax B.Mk.III, serial no. LV907, coded NP-F and nicknamed "Friday the 13th", completed a remarkable 128 operational missions. Incredibly this precious aircraft was not saved from the scrapheap after being displayed on Oxford street in London, Α] only a section of the nose from the aircraft was saved and is exhibited at the RAF Museum Hendon. The Halifax that is displayed at the Yorkshire Air Museum is made up of parts of various aircraft and painted as LV907, in honour of the aircraft and its crew.

On 11 November 1945 a Stirling C.5 operated by the squadron was departing for the United Kingdom when it crashed on take off from RAF Castel Benito in Libya after the wing caught fire, 21 soldiers and five crew were killed, one person survived. ⎗]


See also

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RAF Fighter Command was one of the commands of the Royal Air Force. It was formed in 1936 to allow more specialised control of fighter aircraft. It served throughout the Second World War. It earned near-immortal fame during the Battle of Britain in 1940, when the Few held off the Luftwaffe attack on Britain. The Command continued until 17 November 1943, when it was disbanded and the RAF fighter force was split into two categories defence and attack. The defensive force became Air Defence of Great Britain (ADGB) and the offensive force became the RAF Second Tactical Air Force. Air Defence of Great Britain was renamed back to Fighter Command in October 1944 and continued to provide defensive patrols around Great Britain. It was disbanded for the second time in 1968, when it was subsumed into the new Strike Command.

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No. 113 Squadron began service in 1917 with the Egyptian Expeditionary Force commanded by General Edmund Allenby. Initially, the squadron was a unit of the Royal Flying Corps, serving during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign and as a reconnaissance, army cooperation, bomber, fighter, transport and missile operation squadron during its existence.

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Number 88 Squadron was an aircraft squadron of the Royal Air Force. It was formed at Gosport, Hampshire in July 1917 as a Royal Flying Corps (RFC) squadron.

No. 229 Squadron RAF was a squadron of the Royal Air Force, and is an officially accredited Battle of Britain Squadron. It became No. 603 Squadron RAF in January 1945.

No. 234 Squadron RAF had a long career within the RAF, being operational on flying boats in World War I and on fighter aircraft in World War II. After the war it remained a fighter unit till 1957. In its last incarnation the squadron was in turn Operational Training Unit (OTU), Tactical Weapon Unit (TWU) and part of No. 4 Flying Training School RAF until finally disbanded in 1994.

The 12th Operations Group is the flying component of the 12th Flying Training Wing of United States Air Force's Air Education and Training Command. The group headquarters is located at Randolph Air Force Base, Texas.. The unit's main missions include aircraft instructor pilot training in Beechcraft T-6 Texan II, Northrop T-38C Talon and Raytheon T-1 Jayhawk aircraft, Air Force and Navy undergraduate combat systems officer training and fighter fundamentals student pilot instructor training in the Northrop AT-38C.

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No. 273 Squadron RAF was a Royal Air Force squadron formed as reconnaissance unit in World War I, and re-formed in World War II in Ceylon - initially as a torpedo bomber and reconnaissance unit. In mid 1944 the squadron was re-equipped with Spitfire Mk VIIIs and flew and fought out of airfields in India and Burma. Following the end of the war, the squadron was moved first to Siam (Thailand), and then later, French Indo-China (Vietnam). It was re-equipped with Spitfire Mk XIVs in November 1945.


Watch the video: RAF at War 1939 41a (July 2022).


Comments:

  1. Samull

    Yes, thanks

  2. Nikohn

    the analogues exist?

  3. Stirling

    This day, as if on purpose

  4. Ulvelaik

    What good interlocutors :)

  5. Urian

    Sorry, I pushed this question away

  6. Seif

    I express my gratitude for your help in this matter.



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