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University of Redlands

University of Redlands

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The University of Redlands is a private, liberal arts and sciences university located in Redlands, California.It is a spirited academic community of diverse students and teacher/scholars. The University of Redlands is ranked among the best universities in the nation by U.S. News & World Report.Students at the university can study in one of the three schools: the College of Arts and Sciences, the School of Education, and the School of Business.The College of Arts and Sciences is a residential college which offers undergraduate and graduate programs, including the Johnston Center for Integrative Studies. The college serves around 2,400 students currently and has 144 full-time faculty members.The School of Education, founded in 1924, offers convenient programs for working adults. The college currently serves around 400 students with 17 full-time professors and 30 adjunct professors.The School of Business offers the teaching credential and graduate programs for students with bachelor's degrees. The college currently serves around 1,500 full-time students and a small number of part-time students.Classes are conducted by 23 full-time and 187 adjunct professors. The School of Business classes are held at the main Redlands campus as well as satellite locations in Orange County, Riverside, Rancho Cucamonga/Ontario, Los Angeles County, and San Diego County.Founded on November 25, 1907, the University of Redlands was associated with the American Baptist Church. The first 59 students were admitted in September 1909.Until 1972, the university maintained its religious orientation and required mandatory chapel attendance of all students. The University of Redlands is now an independent institution, but still maintains an informal relationship with the church.The academic programs which constitute the beginnings of the university are now considered the College of Arts and Sciences.The Johnston Center for Integrative Studies was established as an independent institution, Johnston College for Individualized Learning, in 1969. It later became a center within the College of Arts and Sciences in 1979.The Alfred North Whitehead College for Lifelong Learning (also known as Whitehead College) was established as the Alfred North Whitehead College of Liberal and Career Studies, in 1976.The college became a center in 1979, and was later restored to its original status in 1995.In 2000, the School of Education was separated from Whitehead College, which was followed suit by the School of Business in the next year.Now, the Whitehead name is only used in historical and ceremonial contexts.Armacost Library, the university’s main library, is a gateway to information for students, faculty, and staff, on campus or online. The library offers remote services to off-campus students, including those in the School of Education and School of Business.

100 years ago in Redlands: 1920 sees more students enrolling in Redlands’ public schools, University of Redlands

Enrollment of freshmen at the University of Redlands started this morning and Registrar A. Harvey Collins believes that before the day is over almost 150 freshmen will have enrolled. The class is to be that large and probably larger and the indications are that the total enrollment of the school will be over 300 this year.

Adequate preparations have been made to take care of the students. The dormitories are in good shape and Fairmont Hall, which is the new girls’ dormitory, will be ready within a short time. The girls can be accommodated there, although much work is yet to be done. The inside is almost completed, although some of the doors have not yet been received.

The enrollment of the freshmen will continue today and part of tomorrow and the upper classmen will register tomorrow. The school does not officially open until Wednesday when President Victor L. Duke will welcome the old students back and the new ones here in his address at the chapel exercises.

The social activities at the university will start at once. A “dove party” for the Y.W.C.A. will be held at Bekins Hall on Wednesday night, according to the plans, and at the same time the boys will have a “Stag” at California Hall, the boys’ new dorm.

Sept. 14, 1920

Arranging for opening school

H.G. Clement, superintendent of the schools of Redlands, is expecting one of the largest enrollments in the history of the city when the schools open next week. During this week G. Haven Smith, the new principal of the high school, is meeting high school students at his office and arranging courses. The number of freshmen who have already registered is larger than ever before at this time.

It is believed that the high school will be taxed almost to capacity and it is known that it will be until the intermediate school can be finished and all the work done there that is now being done in the high school buildings. The work on the new building is being rushed rapidly.

Mr. Clement will have a list of the teachers to announce later in the week. Many of them are coming into the city now but most of them will not come until Friday or Saturday. There is to be a meeting of all the teachers on Saturday afternoon at the high school.

Draymond Green #23 of the Golden State Warriors drives to the basket against LeBron James #23 of the Los Angeles Lakers in the second half of a NBA basketball Western Conference Play-In game at the Staples Center in Los Angeles on Wednesday, May 19, 2021. (Photo by Keith Birmingham, Pasadena Star-News/ SCNG)

Stephen Curry #30 of the Golden State Warriors passes over LeBron James #23 of the Los Angeles Lakers in the second half of a NBA basketball Western Conference Play-In game at the Staples Center in Los Angeles on Wednesday, May 19, 2021. (Photo by Keith Birmingham, Pasadena Star-News/ SCNG)

Kent Bazemore #26 of the Golden State Warriors drives to the basket against LeBron James #23 of the Los Angeles Lakers in the second half of a NBA basketball Western Conference Play-In game at the Staples Center in Los Angeles on Wednesday, May 19, 2021. (Photo by Keith Birmingham, Pasadena Star-News/ SCNG)

LeBron James #23 of the Los Angeles Lakers controls the ball against Draymond Green #23 of the Golden State Warriors in the second half of a NBA basketball Western Conference Play-In game at the Staples Center in Los Angeles on Wednesday, May 19, 2021. (Photo by Keith Birmingham, Pasadena Star-News/ SCNG)

Sept. 14, 1920

Registration in the schools

The registration of high school freshmen will take place on Thursday from 9 to 12 and from 1:30 to 4. Students of the other classes will register on Friday at 9 a.m. It is important that all students of the three upper classes be present at this time as the program will be run through and preferences as to class assignments will be given to those students who are present then.

The high school will furnish free text books in all subjects this year. A deposit of three dollars will be required of all students before books are issued and this sum will be returned at the end of the year and if all books are returned in good condition except for ordinary usage.

Intermediate students will register at the intermediate building on the same days that high school students are registered. The school trucks will run on these days to Yucaipa, East Highlands and the Mission District for the accommodation of the students who live in these districts.

The following requirements for high school graduation should be noted. Each student is required to take two years of English, a year of laboratory science and a year of United States history. In addition two subjects must be pursued for three eyes each. These majors must be selected from English, history, mathematics, science, modern languages.

The class rooms for registration have been assigned as follows:

Seniors — A-L, room 32 M-Z, 36.

Juniors — A-M, room 52 N-Z, 42.

Sophomores — A-E, room 50 F-M, 27 N-Z, 4.

Freshmen — A-F, room 33 G-O, 37 P-Z, 23.

Sept. 14, 1920

Big enrollment at university

Registration at the University of Redlands continues today and it is expected that there will be over a hundred pass through the hands of the faculty committee during the day. Yesterday there were almost 200 examined and it seems sure that the registration this year will pass the 300 mark the first week.

“It will be by far the largest freshman class that the University of Redlands has ever had,” said President Victor L. Duke this morning. “Before noon yesterday, 97 freshmen had passed through my hands and that was not much more than half of them. They are coming from every part of California and from other states, many from the east.”

Everything is in readiness for the opening of the session tomorrow morning. The first semester will open with chapel exercises tomorrow morning and from then on classes will be held regularly.

Many more courses are being offered the students of the university this year and many will be ale to get training that they have needed for future work.

Sept. 15, 1920

Rain today

Redlands was visited by a freak shower this afternoon, rain beginning to fall about 2:15. The downpour was almost torrential for a few minutes but soon eased off. No damage was done, as the accompanying wind also soon subsided The “gospel tent” opposite the Facts office was blown down, but was soon raised again

Sept. 18, 1920

Enrollment to break record

Basing predictions on the registration of high school students, school officials believe that the Redlands schools will have a larger enrollment when school opens next Monday morning than ever before. The registration in the high school and the intermediate has been such as to tax the capacity of the schools.

All day yesterday a stream of the upper classmen visited the high school and registered for the coming year. Early this morning the freshmen began to travel the road and it is believed that the freshman class will be the largest the school has ever had.

H.G. Clement, superintendent of the schools, met the teachers this afternoon and outlined matters of importance to all of them. It is believed that some changes will have to be made for indications are that some rooms will be overcrowded.

Redlands is fortunate in securing the service of A. Haven Smith, new high school principal, who has taken hold of the work there in most capable fashion. The class schedule has been carefully arranged and it is expected that there will be no confusion Monday morning when school opens.

University of Redlands - History

This could be your home for the next four years, so while you're visiting leave some time to explore. Below is a list of some of our favorite places in Redlands.

A.K. Smiley Public Library
125 W. Vine St.
Established in 1894, the A.K. Smiley Public Library, a state historic landmark, has served generations of patrons in the city of Redlands and beyond. Visitors go back in time when they walk through the library&rsquos doors, thanks to the historic architecture, including a curved staircase, timber arches, stained glass windows, hardwood nooks and artifacts from the Redlands of yesterday.

Downtown Redlands
State St. and Citrus Ave. between Orange and 9th
Take a stroll down historic State Street and Citrus Avenue in downtown Redlands, where restaurants, bars, boutiques, jewelers, specialty stores and bakeries are plentiful.

The Footlighters
1018 Barton Rd.
This community theater provides rewarding entertainment and creative productions of live theater. The Footlighters Theatre seats 300 guests in a house offering a variation on the theme of Theater in the Round. The all-volunteer cast performs five productions annually.

Historical Glass Museum
1157 Orange St.
The Historical Glass Museum is home to more than 7,000 glass pieces from the 1800&rsquos to today. Displays include candlesticks, kerosene lamps, milk glass, stems, bowls, compotes, and historical plates from the Heisey, Cambridge, Fenton, Fostoria, and Sandwich factories, as well as those that produced depression-era glassware. The museum is inside of a 1903 Victorian-style home that once belonged to Emma Cryer, daughter of early Redlands settlers Jerome and Martha Seymour.

Kimberly Crest House & Gardens
1325 Prospect Dr.
This beautiful estate sits on 6.25 acres of land in south Redlands. John Alfred and Helen Cheney Kimberly, who created the Italian Renaissance gardens, purchased the Victorian Château house in 1905. When their daughter, Mary Kimberly-Shirk, died, she donated the property to the &ldquopeople of Redlands.&rdquo The home remains decorated in the style of Mrs. Kimberly-Shirk&rsquos time with antique furniture, and the gardens contain the fountain &ldquoVenus Rising from the Sea,&rdquo ponds with lily pads and fish, roses, magnolia trees and more.

Lincoln Memorial Shrine
125 W. Vine St.
The Lincoln Memorial Shrine is the only museum and archives west of the Mississippi River dedicated to the study of President Abraham Lincoln and the American Civil War. Originally designed by noted architect Elmer Grey in 1932, the Shrine houses an extensive collection of manuscripts, artifacts, uniforms, quilts and other pieces of history, as well as an original Norman Rockwell painting.

Redlands Bowl
25 Grant St.
Home to the internationally renowned, oldest continuously running free summer music festival in the U.S. - The Redlands Bowl Summer Music Festival features 16 to 18 programs, including classical and semi-classical concerts, opera, ballet, symphony productions, folk dancing and musical performances on Tuesday and Friday nights.

Redlands Market Night
Thursday nights. Set up on State street between Orange and 9th
Pick up locally-grown fresh fruit, vegetables, flowers, bakery items and more at this popular Thursday night open air market. More than 150 different food and merchandise booths, as well as fun activities for kids, are set up on State Street between Orange and 9th.

Redlands Symphony Association
Visit for upcoming performances
The mission of the Redlands Symphony is to inspire, entertain and educate by providing outstanding musical performances that enhance our cultural environment. Performances take place in the University of Redlands Memorial Chapel during the fall and winter, bringing the quality of a big city symphony to Redlands.

Prospect Park
Cajon St. and Highland
Home of the Redlands Theatre Festival, Prospect Park is 11.4 acres and offers walking trails and picnic areas.

Redlands Theatre Festival
Located in Prospect Park
The Redlands Theatre Festival has been entertaining audiences since 1973. Performances take place under the stars in the RTF Theatre inside of Prospect Park, with the season beginning the second week of July and ending the third week of August. Each season is centered around five plays, from major Broadway musicals to contemporary dramas, and every seat in the house is within 50 feet of the thrust stage.

San Bernardino County Museum
2024 Orange Tree Lane
A regional museum with exhibits and collections in cultural and natural history. The museum seeks to inspire the public to understand our history through responsible collection and preservation of artifacts. Enjoy rotating special exhibits as well as the popular Exploration Station live animal discovery center.

History & Landmarks

Welcome to the Beautiful City of Redlands. A Big Town with a Small Town Feel.

Redlands – known in 1900 as “The City of Millionaires” and later as “The City of Beautiful Homes” welcomes you! Founded in 1881 and incorporated in 1888, Redlands is a quintessential “big town” with a “small town” feel. For much of its history Redlands was the “Washington Navel Orange Growing Capital of the World” with the citrus industry as the main focus of its economy.

Through the years the economy may have changed, but that special feeling of community in a small town hasn’t. This is clear as you take a look around Redlands. Tree-lined State Street is still comprised primarily of beautiful historic buildings and locally-owned shops and boutiques. Some of its most famous buildings, like A.K. Smiley Public Library, a Moorish-style library built in 1898, and the Redlands Bowl, built in 1930 and home of the oldest continuously free outdoor concert series in California, are merely steps from historic downtown.

Just to the west, one can stroll through the Smiley Park neighborhood, filled with turn-of-the-century bungalows as well as landmark homes. With a short drive, one can cruise by some famous homes, like “America’s Favorite Victorian” the Morey House, on Terracina Boulevard, see the stately homes of Olive Avenue, and Highland Avenue, the “Butler Belt” so known because at one time that was the most dense population of homes employing butlers in the City! You can visit Kimberly Crest House and Gardens, a home museum featured on the A&E Network’s series “America’s Castles” and don’t miss a walk through Prospect Park, just next door.

Redlands’ parks are perfect for picnicking, and are designed with this in mind. While you’re at it, the beautiful campus of University of Redlands, founded 1907, is worth a seeing.

Delta Kappa Psi

Classes commenced at the University of Redlands on September 30, 1909 under the direction of its first President, Jasper Newton Field. Less than eight months later, on May 17, 1910, five of the twenty women enrolled at the fledgling University founded the first sorority on campus, Delta Kappa Psi. Charter Members included Ruth (Bekins) Holt, Lois (Field) Clatworthy, Helen (Field) Webster, Harriet Stuart and Beatrice (Fessenden) Fowler.

Deltas have always been first. Charter Member Ruth Holt, who served as the first Delta president, was the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Martin Bekins who funded the building of Bekins Hall, the first dormitory on campus. Two of President Field&rsquos daughters, Lois and Helen Field, were among the five founding members of Delta. In addition, one of the most admired women in Redlands history, Mrs. Elbert (Mary Kimberly) Shirk, daughter of Kimberly-Clark paper company co-founder John Alfred Kimberly, became one of the first Delta Patronesses on November 22, 1922. Through the foresight and generosity of Mrs. Shirk, Redlands now benefits from Kimberly Crest House and Gardens and Prospect Park.

Since its founding in 1910, Delta Kappa Psi has stood for true and broadminded womanhood, for loyalty to its members and its ideals. The Delta Kappa Psi sorority of today is comprised of diverse and unique women who strive for excellence as individuals and as a sisterhood. In addition to academic achievement, sorority members pride themselves on their involvement in athletics (both intercollegiate and intramural), the student leadership roles they assume, and the variety of campus clubs and organizations (academic, honorary and professional societies, political and social justice, service and religious) they actively support.

Deltas serve as Community Directors and Community Assistants in Residence Life, as Admissions Hosts and as Peer Advisors and Tutors. They are members of the Johnston Center, Mock Trial and Debate teams, and study abroad in Salzburg and other locations worldwide. Deltas are represented in Omicron Delta Kappa, Motarboard, Maroon & Grey, SPURS, Greek Council, Judicial Council, and ASUR Senate. The Dance Company, Cheerleading Squad, Choir, and Theatre Departments benefit from the talents Deltas possess.

Deltas participate in a variety of ongoing campus-wide community service efforts and it was the Deltas who brought Body Image Awareness Week to the University of Redlands campus.


Zelikow received a BA in history and political science from the University of Redlands, a J.D. from the University of Houston Law Center (where he was an editor of the law review), and a MALD and Ph.D. in international relations from The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University.

Academic and federal government positions Edit

After practicing law in the early 1980s, Zelikow turned toward the field of national security. He was adjunct professor of national security affairs at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California in 1984–1985.

He joined the United States Department of State through the standard examination process for the foreign service as a career civil servant. As a Foreign Service Officer, he served overseas at the U.S. Mission to the conventional arms control talks in Vienna, at the State Department's 24-hour crisis center, and on the secretariat staff for Secretary of State George P. Shultz, during the second Reagan administration (1985–1989).

In 1989, in the George H. W. Bush administration, Zelikow was detailed to join the National Security Council, where he was involved as a senior White House staffer in the diplomacy surrounding the German reunification and the diplomatic settlements accompanying the end of the Cold War in Europe. During the first Gulf War, he aided President Bush, National Security Advisor Brent Scowcroft, and Secretary of State James Baker in diplomatic affairs related to the coalition. He co-authored, with Condoleezza Rice, the book Germany Unified and Europe Transformed: A Study in Statecraft (1995), an academic study of the politics of reunification. [1] [2]

In 1991, Zelikow left the NSC to go to Harvard University. From 1991 to 1998, he was Associate Professor of Public Policy and co-director of Harvard's Intelligence and Policy Program, at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government.

In 1998, Zelikow moved to the University of Virginia, where until February 2005 he directed the nation's largest center on the American presidency. He served as director of the Miller Center of Public Affairs and, as White Burkett Miller Professor of History, held an endowed chair. The Center launched a project to transcribe and annotate the previously secret tapes made during the Kennedy, Nixon and Johnson presidencies. [3] In a presidential oral history project headed by James Sterling Young, it systematically gathers additional information on the presidencies of Reagan, George H.W. Bush, and Clinton.

Following an appointment at the Department of State from 2005 to 2007 during the Bush administration, Zelikow returned to academics at the University of Virginia. In 2011, he was appointed Associate Dean of the Graduate School of Arts & Sciences. He has been instrumental in restructuring the College of Arts & Sciences. Also in 2011, Zelikow was appointed by President Barack Obama to the President's Intelligence Advisory Board. [4]

Commissions and committees Edit

Bush transition team Edit

In late 2000 and early 2001, Zelikow served on President Bush's transition team. After George W. Bush took office, Zelikow was named to a position on the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board [PFIAB], and worked on other task forces and commissions as well. He directed the bipartisan National Commission on Federal Election Reform, created after the 2000 election and chaired by former presidents Jimmy Carter and Gerald Ford, along with Lloyd Cutler and Bob Michel. This Commission's recommendations led directly to congressional consideration and enactment into law of the Help America Vote Act of 2002. [5]

Markle Task Force on Security Edit

In 2002, Phil Zelikow became the executive director of the Markle Task Force on National Security in the Information Age. The Task Force comprises a diverse and bipartisan group of experienced policymakers, senior executives from the information technology industry, public interest advocates, and experts in privacy, intelligence, and national security. The Markle Task Force seeks to inform the policy judgments and investments of the federal, state and local governments in the collection and use of information as it relates to national security. The Task Force's reports and recommendations have been codified through two laws (IRPTA 2004 and the Implementing 9/11 Commission Report Act 2007) and several presidential directives. [6]

Executive director of the 9/11 Commission Edit

Zelikow was appointed executive director of the 9/11 Commission (National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States), whose work included examination of the conduct of presidents Clinton and George W. Bush and their administrations prior to and on September 11, 2001. Zelikow's prior involvement with the administration of George W. Bush led to opposition from the 9/11 Family Steering Committee, citing the obvious conflict of interest of having previously worked on the Bush transition team. The Commission's Republican chair and Democratic vice-chair strongly defended Zelikow, both at the time and later. [7] In response to the concerns, Zelikow had agreed to recuse himself from any investigation matters pertaining to the National Security Council's transition from the Clinton to Bush administrations, which Zelikow had helped manage. [8]

After being informed of the Department of Defense's Able Danger project by U.S. Army Lieutenant Colonel Anthony Shaffer, he failed to have the 9/11 Commission investigate, despite the promise that the Commission would investigate all 9/11 related topics. Able Danger was not included in the Commission's final report. In 2005 and 2006 a member of the House Armed Services Committee, Rep. Curt Weldon, publicized Shaffer's allegations in public statements and hearings. [9] A September 2006 report of the Department of Defense Inspector General found that these allegations were baseless. A further report by the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence came to the same conclusion in December 2006. [10] [11]

Some staff members of the 9/11 Commission distrusted Zelikow, considering him to be a "White House mole" in view of his being a close confidant of National Security Adviser Condoleezza Rice and his having worked in several high level capacities in the George W. Bush administration. [12]

Rice national security strategy project Edit

In Rise of the Vulcans (2004), James Mann reports that when Richard Haass, a senior aide to Secretary of State Colin Powell and the director of policy planning at the State Department, drafted an overview of America’s national security strategy following the September 11, 2001 attacks, Dr. Rice, the national security advisor, "ordered that the document be completely rewritten. She thought the Bush administration needed something bolder, something that would represent a more dramatic break with the ideas of the past. Rice turned the writing over to her old colleague, University of Virginia Professor Philip Zelikow." One criticism of this document, issued on September 17, 2002, is that it is supposed to have been a significant document in an alleged Bush administration doctrine of preemptive war. [13] [14] However, in the drafting of this document Zelikow had opposed the proposed language using preemption in the context of how to deal with weapons of mass destruction. [15]

Rework America Edit

In 2014–15, while on leave from the University of Virginia and working for the Markle Foundation, Zelikow helped lead a Foundation-sponsored group of prominent Americans called "Rework America." The group developed arguments and ideas on how to use the digital revolution to enlarge economic opportunity for all Americans. The group published its ideas in "America's Moment: Creating Opportunity in the Connected Age." [16]

George W. Bush administration Edit

Zelikow's role in the second Iraq war is discussed at some length in Bob Woodward's State of Denial, which presents him as an internal critic of the way the war was being conducted in 2005 and 2006, and as an originator of the alternative approach termed "clear, hold, and build." He is also named by sources such as Jack Goldsmith's The Terror Presidency as an internal critic of the treatment of terrorist captives, and there was wide attention given to an address he made on this subject after leaving office in April 2007.

Based on speeches and internal memos, some political analysts believe that Zelikow disagreed with aspects of the Bush administration's Middle Eastern policy. [17]

As Counselor to Secretary of State Rice, Zelikow opposed the Bush administration Torture Memos. In 2006, Zelikow wrote a memorandum warning that the abuse of prisoners through so-called "enhanced interrogation" could constitute war crimes. [18] [19] Bush administration officials ignored his recommendations, and tried to collect all copies of the memo and destroy them. [20] [21] Jane Mayer, author of the Dark Side, [22] quotes Zelikow as predicting that "America's descent into torture will in time be viewed like the Japanese internments," in that "(f)ear and anxiety were exploited by zealots and fools." [23]

Expertise Edit

Zelikow's area of academic expertise is the history and practice of public policy. In addition to the work on German unification, he has been significantly involved in contemporary scholarship on the Cuban Missile Crisis, including the relation between this crisis and the East-West confrontation over Berlin.

While at Harvard, he worked with Ernest R. May and Richard Neustadt on the use, and misuse, of history in policymaking. They observed, as Zelikow noted in his own words, that "contemporary" history is "defined functionally by those critical people and events that go into forming the public's presumptions about its immediate past. The idea of 'public presumption'," he explained, "is akin to William McNeill's notion of 'public myth' but without the negative implication sometimes invoked by the word 'myth.' Such presumptions are beliefs (1) thought to be true (although not necessarily known to be true with certainty), and (2) shared in common within the relevant political community." [24] "

Zelikow and May also authored and sponsored scholarship on the relationship between intelligence analysis and policy decisions. Zelikow later helped found a research project to prepare and publish annotated transcripts of presidential recordings made secretly during the Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon administrations (see and another project to strengthen oral history work on more recent administrations, with both these projects based at the University of Virginia's Miller Center of Public Affairs.

In writing about the importance of beliefs about history, Zelikow has called attention to what he has called "'searing' or 'molding' events [that] take on 'transcendent' importance and, therefore, retain their power even as the experiencing generation passes from the scene. In the United States, beliefs about the formation of the nation and the Constitution remain powerful today, as do beliefs about slavery and the Civil War. World War II, Vietnam, and the civil rights struggle are more recent examples." He has noted that "a history’s narrative power is typically linked to how readers relate to the actions of individuals in the history if readers cannot make a connection to their own lives, then a history may fail to engage them at all." [24]

Terrorism Edit

Zelikow has also written about terrorism and national security, including a set of Harvard case studies on "Policing Northern Ireland." In the November–December 1998 issue of Foreign Affairs, he co-authored an article Catastrophic Terrorism, with Ashton B. Carter, and John M. Deutch, in which they speculated that if the 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center had succeeded, "the resulting horror and chaos would have exceeded our ability to describe it. Such an act of catastrophic terrorism would be a watershed event in American history. It could involve loss of life and property unprecedented in peacetime and undermine America’s fundamental sense of security, as did the Soviet atomic bomb test in 1949. Like Pearl Harbor, the event would divide our past and future into a before and after. The United States might respond with draconian measures scaling back civil liberties, allowing wider surveillance of citizens, detention of suspects and use of deadly force. More violence could follow, either future terrorist attacks or U.S. counterattacks. Belatedly, Americans would judge their leaders negligent for not addressing terrorism more urgently." [25]

Zelikow has co-written many books. He wrote a book with Ernest May on The Kennedy Tapes, and another with Joseph Nye and David C. King on Why People Don’t Trust Government. Others include:

  • Philip D. Zelikow with Condoleezza Rice, To Build a Better World: Choices to End the Cold War and Create a Global Commonwealth" Twelve, 2019. 528 pages, ISBN1-538-76468-7
  • Philip D. Zelikow with Condoleezza Rice, Germany Unified and Europe Transformed: A Study in StatecraftHarvard University Press, 1995, hardcover, 520 pages, 0-674-35324-2 trade paperback, 1997, 520 pages, 0-674-35325-0
  • Philip D. Zelikow with Graham T. Allison, Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis 2nd edition Longman, 1999. 440 pages, 0-321-01349-2
  • Philip D. Zelikow with Ernest R. May, The Kennedy Tapes: Inside the White House During the Cuban Missile CrisisHarvard University Press, 1997, 728 pages, 0-674-17926-9
  • Philip D. Zelikow, American Military Strategy: Memos to a President (Aspen Policy Series) W.W. Norton & Company, 2001, 206 pages, 0-393-97711-0

Zelikow is a member of the Global Development Program Advisory Panel, Gates Foundation. [ citation needed ]

University of Redlands

Founded in 1907, the University of Redlands is a higher learning institution based in the southern California city for which it is named. The campus is located both close to the urban attractions of the city of San Bernardino, and the spectacular natural location of a nearby mountain range.

There are over 40 fields of study for undergraduate students at Redlands at the College of Arts and Sciences, with majors such as environmental studies, chemistry, and global business, and minors in the fields of astronomy, human-animal studies, and art history. The Centre for Spatial Studies offers students a multidisciplinary approach towards research and study of geospatial technologies, offering both major and minor courses. Academics are also offered at the schools of business, education, and music, and the school of continuing studies provides certificate programmes, individual courses, workshops and on-site custom courses.

Undergraduate students will be expected to live on campus for the duration of their studies, and the university provides a wide range of accommodation opportunities. Anderson Hall houses 200 students across all educational years, Grossmont Hall is an all-women’s community, and Melrose Hall is a 60 student facility with extended quiet study hours.

The Redlands mascot is a bulldog, and the animal will often be seen at sporting events or around campus. Started as a prank in 1913, the carving of a large letter "R" into vegetation surrounding the campus is a tradition that continues to this day.

Alumni of Redlands include congresspersons Pete Aguilar and Juanita Millender-McDonald, high profile lawyer David Boies, and true crime writer Cathy Scott.

The Redlands Symphony was founded in 1950 by Dr. Edward C. Tritt as the University-Community Symphony Orchestra, an adjunct organization to the University of Redlands. The orchestra quickly became a vital part of Redlands’ cultural fabric, bringing a high level of artistic excellence to the stage of the Memorial Chapel. Early successes included the 1957 premiere of a work by William Grant Still and a sold-out performance by Jack Benny in 1974.

In 1974, the Redlands Winter Concert Association, which had been founded in 1956 to present concerts by touring artists in the Memorial Chapel, took over management of the University-Community Symphony Orchestra from the University of Redlands. The Winter Concert Association now assumed the dual role of performing symphonic concerts and presenting outside artists for the community.

The University-Community Symphony Orchestra officially merged with the Redlands Winter Concert Association in 1983, becoming the Redlands Symphony Association. That same season, Jon Robertson accepted the position of Music Director & Conductor. Under his leadership, the orchestra has evolved from a mix of faculty, students, and townspeople to a professional ensemble of the region’s foremost musicians.

In 1998, the Redlands Symphony expanded its service to the community by launching the OrKIDstra program, which provides music education and concert-going opportunities to schoolchildren throughout the region. OrKIDstra has grown steadily over the years and now presents four concerts and curriculum enrichment materials to over 6,000 students from 17 schools, as well as a free Family Concert & Instrumental Petting Zoo each spring.

The Redlands Symphony continues to maintain a close and mutually-beneficial relationship with the University of Redlands. The University provides the orchestra with support in numerous ways, not least of which is the use of the Memorial Chapel. In return, the Symphony provides an opportunity for outstanding students at the School of Music the opportunity to gain experience playing symphonic concerts with some of the region’s finest artist, many of whom are also on faculty at the University.

The Redlands Symphony Orchestra’s remarkable growth under the baton of Maestro Jon Robertson amazed critics and delighted audiences. Highlights have included performances of Mahler’s Resurrection Symphony, the Mozart Requiem, and a staged production of Stravinsky’s A Soldier’s Tale featuring Tony Award-winner John Rubinstein. Over the years, the orchestra has received several “exemplary” ratings from the California Arts Council, which commented, “This is a remarkable, strong orchestra, boasting fine ensemble playing, attention to detail and a rich orchestral sound.” Maestro Robertson retired in 2016 after 33 years on the podium.

On June 4, 2016, the Redlands Symphony announced the appointment of Ransom Wilson as Music Director, promising a future in which the orchestra will soar to even greater artistic heights.

The Jalayirids: Dynastic State Formation in the Mongol Middle East

The period of Middle Eastern history between the collapse of the Mongol Ilkhanate in 1335 and the rise of Timur (Tamerlane) at the end of the fourteenth century is commonly seen as a tumultuous time of political breakdown and disorder. This book helps to make sense of this confusing period by tracing the origins, history and memory of the Jalayirid dynasty, a family that succeeded the Mongol Ilkhans in Iran and Iraq in the fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries and claimed to be the rightful heirs of the Chinggisid Mongols. The story of how the Jalayirids came to power is illustrative of the political dynamics that shaped much of the Mongol and post-Mongol period in the Middle East.

100 years ago in Redlands: Zanja Fiesta staged on first part of University of Redlands’ Alumni Greek Theatre

This ad for the University of Redlands’ 12th annual Zanja Fiesta, presented June 13, 1921, on the newly constructed Alumni stage, ran June 9, 1921, in the Redlands Daily Facts. (Redlands Daily Facts)

June 8, 1921

Out-of-town folks coming

A goodly number of the 1,500 to 2,000 persons expected at Zanja Fiesta given at the University of Redlands next Monday, will be from Riverside, Colton and San Bernardino, according to the expectations of those in charge of the production. Extensive advertising has been done in these cities in addition to the publicity which has been given the Fiesta in Redlands.

Many different kinds of appeals have been made to the public in these cities to tell them of the merits of the opera which is to be given as the annual commencement week production this year, “The Chimes of Normandy.” According to Student Manager Loper, who has complete charge of the Fiesta, this policy is in accordance with the determination of the management to make the Fiesta a big advertisement for the university among prospective students and supporters in nearby cities, as well as simply to draw a big crowd from the local public.

It is expected that a large number of these visitors from nearby towns will come in machines, and preparations have been made to care for the parking of cars in any number. Plans have also been made to reach the public not so well favored in the line of transportation, and dodgers and car-cards have been placed in the inter-urban cars running between Riverside and Redlands by way of San Bernardino and Colton.

The Alumni stage, newly completed, will be used Monday night for the first time. It should add a great deal to the enjoyment of the affair, for it is visible from every seat in the amphitheater without strain or exertion. The grounds have been so graded and sloped that everyone in the audience is given a clear and unobstructed view of the whole stage. Another feature which will add to the affair is that the Zanja, which flows through the grounds and gives he traditional affair its name, will be turned off for the evening, and its babbling tongue will be silent during the performance, telling no secrets of the hard work put in by cast chorus and management in preparing for the big affair.

June 8, 1921

Smiley Heights considered by the Moose

That there is some chance of Smiley Heights becoming the western home for the Moose lodge was reported at the meeting of the directors of the Chamber of Commerce this morning when a letter was read from Robert Lee Bettner, real estate man of Riverside

Mr. Bettner said that Smiley Heights, comprising 640 acres, has been offered to the Moose for a western home and headquarters, home for the aged and orphan children for $340,000. It is said that some of the officials consider it an ideal place.

G.S. Hinckley reported that the committee has had conferences regarding the sale of the property and it is hoped that some plan can be worked out so that the city can retain the scenic drive through the property.

Redlands also has an exceptional opportunity of locating the western college of the Lutheran Evangelical church, the third largest Protestant denomination in point of numbers in the country, for the national commission will be here tomorrow. The commission will be met at San Bernardino by Paul W. Moore, chairman of the reception committee, Mayor A.E. Brock and A.E. Isham and will be shown several available sites. It is believed that the commission will be impressed by the sites to be offered here.

Editor’s note: Smiley Heights did not become the western home for the Moose Lodge, but there is a Moose Lodge in Mentone. Redlands also did not become the home of a West Coast Lutheran college.

The Alumni stage at the University of Redlands, first used for the June 13, 1921, Zanja Fiesta, was the first part of the university’s Alumni Greek Theatre to be built. This drawing of the proposed Greek theater ran June 15, 1921, in the Redlands Daily Facts. The Alumni Greek Theatre was completed in 1927. (Redlands Daily Facts)

June 10, 1921

Much work on Zanja Fiesta

All set for the best Fiesta in history was the verdict of Director Bertrand and Harold Loper, student manager, today, speaking of the progress made recently in preparation for next Monday night when “The Chimes of Normandy,” 12th annual Zanja Fiesta of the university, is to be presented on the new Alumni stage at the college campus. …

An attractive poster in the window of Fowler and Thornquest Men’s Furnishings Store, where tickets are on reserve, shows a cross section of the Zanja Fiesta grounds in an interesting way. The new Alumni stage is indicated, used for the first time this year. The bed of the Zanja (which will be dry for the Fiesta) separates this from the seating space of the amphitheater. The graded floor and five terraces of seats are shown to give the patron a good idea of where he is sitting. Every one of these seats is well placed, with a clear view of the whole stage. Six hundred of the most central are on reserve, and some 1,400 are open to general admission tickets.

A new bridge over the Zanja will be introduced to general use on Monday night, to handle the crowds expected at the production.

This view of the University of Redlands’ Alumni Greek Theatre is from the 1960s, several decades after construction was completed in 1927. (Courtesy of the A.K. Smiley Public Library Heritage Room)

June 14, 1921

Zanja Fiesta is given by the students

Not the slightest stretch of imagination was necessary to make the audience at the annual Zanja Fiesta feel perfectly at home in a seacoast village last evening. The weather man had conspired with other elements to make the setting absolute in its fidelity, even in the cold, clammy hand of the fog as it steals into the very marrow of the bones. It was all realistic and helped wonderfully to make the fiesta one of the most brilliant ever given by the students.

It was not the first presentation of the “Bells of Corneville,” or as it is better known, “Chimes of Normandy,” in Redlands. The students of the university have given it once before, but under no such ideal conditions as last evening. The “Chimes” ring truer and are more delightful when given out-of-doors and the setting last evening was just as beautiful as could be imagined, the purling Zanja separating the players from the audience seated about the hillsides that rim in the bowl, the great cottonwood and eucalypti forming a graceful setting for the stage.

The new concrete stage was dedicated last evening and the people of Redlands given a taste of what is to come. This is but one section of the stage, later another is to be built, then the walls and finally the seats for those who attend the fiestas.

Editor’s note: The Alumni Association presented the completed Alumni Greek Theatre to the university community six years later, in June 1927.

Watch the video: Living at the University of Redlands (July 2022).


  1. Conlan

    It won't work like that.

  2. Nikorisar

    Absolutely with you it agree. It seems to me it is very excellent idea. Completely with you I will agree.

  3. Shaktinris

    I will keep silent maybe just

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