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Hatteras II Str - History

Hatteras II Str - History



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Hatteras II

(Str: dp. 10,503 1. 377'; b. 5°' dr. 2S'10"; B. 10 k.)

The second Hatteras was built in 1917 for the Cunard Line by the Bethlehem Shipping Corp. of Sparrow's Point Md. Acquired by the Navy for the war effort, she commissioned 23 October 1917, Lt. Comdr. W. K. Martin in command.

After loading cargo, mainly iron, in Maryland, Hatteras joined a convoy at Norfolk and sailed for France on 26 January 1918. On 4 February the convoy ran into a severe North Atlantic storm, and Hatteras' steering gear broke down completely. The disabled ship headed back to Boston using a jury-rigged steering system arriving 11 days later. On 6 March she sailed again for France via Halifax, but 11 days later ran into another severe storm, and, once again, broken ~steering gear forced her to turn back to Boston.

On 9 April Hatteras sailed for France for the third time, this time through relatively calm seas, and arrived in Nantes on the 30th. Cargo successfully discharged, she returned to Baltimore on 23 May. Thereafter she made four more Atlantic crossings, one to Nantes and three to Bordeaux, finally returning to New York 19 March 1919. Hatteras decommissioned there on 8 April 1919 and the same day was returned to the USSB, which retained her until she was abandoned in 1938.


U-Boats off the Outer Banks

At a little after two o’clock in the morning on Monday, January 19, 1942, an earthquake­like rumble tossed fifteen-year-old Gibb Gray from his bed. Furniture shook, glass and knickknacks rattled, and books fell from shelves as a thundering roar vibrated through the walls of the houses in Gibb’s Outer Banks village of Avon. Surprised and concerned, Gibb’s father rushed to the windows on the house’s east side and looked toward the ocean. “There’s a fire out there!” he shouted to his family. Clearly visible on the horizon, a great orange fireball had erupted. A towering column of black smoke blotted out the stars and further darkened the night sky.

Only seven miles away, a German U-boat had just torpedoed the 337-foot-long U.S. freighter, City of Atlanta, sinking the ship and killing all but three of the 47 men aboard. The same U-boat attacked two more ships just hours later. Less than six weeks after the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor, the hostilities of the Second World War had arrived on America’s East Coast and North Carolina’s beaches. This was not the first time that German U-boats had come to United States waters. During World War I, three U-boats sank ten ships off the Tar Heel coast in what primarily was considered a demonstration of German naval power. But by 1942, U-boats had become bigger, faster, and more deadly. Their presence in American waters was not intended for “show” but to help win World War II for Germany.

The abbreviated name “U-boat” comes from the German word unterseeboot, meaning submarine or undersea boat. However, U-boats were not true submarines. They were warships that spent most of their time on the surface. They could submerge only for limited periods—mostly to attack or evade

detection by enemy ships, and to avoid bad weather. U-boats could only travel about sixty miles underwater before having to surface for fresh air. They often attacked ships while on the surface using deck-mounted guns. Typically, about 50 men operated a U-boat. The boats carried fifteen torpedoes, or self­propelled “bombs,” which ranged up to twenty-two feet long and could travel thirty miles per hour. Experts have described German U-boats as among the most effective and seaworthy warships ever designed.

Within hours of the U-boat attack near Avon, debris and oil began washing up on the beaches. This scene seemed to be repeated constantly. For the next six months, along the East Coast and the Gulf of Mexico, at least sixty-five different German U-boats attacked American and British merchant ships carrying vital supplies to the Allies in Europe— cargos of oil, gasoline, raw vegetables and citrus products, lumber and steel, aluminum for aircraft construction, rubber for tires, and cotton for clothing. By July of 1942, 397 ships had been sunk or damaged. More than 5,000 people had been killed.

The greatest concentration of U-boat attacks happened off North Carolina’s Outer Banks, where dozens of ships passed daily. So many ships were attacked that, in time, the waters near Cape Hatteras earned a nickname: “Torpedo Junction.” U.S. military and government authorities didn’t want people to worry, so news reports of enemy U-boats near the coast were classified, or held back from the public for national security reasons. For many years, most people had no idea how bad things really were. But families living on the Outer Banks knew—they were practically in the war.

“We’d hear these explosions most any time of the day or night and it would shake the houses and sometimes crack the walls,” remembered Blanche Jolliff, of Ocracoke village. Even though ships were being torpedoed by enemy U-boats almost every day, just a few miles away, coastal residents had no choice but to live as normally as possible. “We sort of got used to hearing it,” Gibb Gray said. “The explosions were mostly in the distance, so we weren’t too scared. I remember we were walking to school one day, and the whole ground shook. We looked toward the ocean, just beyond the Cape Hatteras lighthouse, and there was another huge cloud of smoke. That was the oil tanker, Dixie Arrow.”

Some Outer Bankers came closer to the war than they would have preferred. Teenager Charles Stowe, of Hatteras, and his father were headed out to sea aboard their fishing boat one day when they nearly rammed a U-boat, which was rising to the surface directly in front of them. The elder Stowe’s eyesight was not very good. He told his son, who was steering their boat, to keep on going—he thought the vessel ahead was just another fishing boat. “I said, ‘Dad, that is a German submarine!’ And it sure was,” Stowe recalled. “He finally listened to me, and we turned around and got out of there just in time.”

The war cut back on one favorite summer pastime for Outer Banks young people. “That summer we had to almost give up swimming in the ocean—it was just full of oil, you’d get it all over you,” Mrs. Ormond Fuller recalled of the oil spilled by torpedoed tankers. Gibb Gray remembered the oil, too: “We’d step in it before we knew it, and we’d be five or six inches deep. We’d have to scrub our feet and legs with rags soaked in kerosene. It’s hard to get off, that oil.” It is estimated that 150 million gallons of oil spilled into the sea and on the beaches along the Outer Banks during 1942.

Some local residents thought Germans might try to sneak ashore. Others suspected strangers of being spies for the enemy. “We were frightened to death. We locked our doors at night for the first time ever,” said Ocracoke’s Blanche Styron. Calvin O’Neal remembered strangers with unusual accents who stayed at an Ocracoke hotel during the war: “The rumor was they were spies, and the hotel owner’s daughter and I decided to be counterspies, and we tried our best to follow them around, but we never caught them doing anything suspicious.”

At Buxton, Maude White was the village postmistress and a secret coast watcher for the U.S. Navy. She was responsible for observing unusual activities and reporting them to the local Coast Guard. In 1942 one couple with German accents attracted attention by drawing maps and taking notes about the island. White became suspicious, and so did her daughter, who would follow the pair from a distance—riding her beach pony. After being reported by White, the strangers were apprehended when they crossed Oregon Inlet on the ferry. Records fail to indicate whether or not the strangers really were spies, but White’s daughter became the inspiration for the heroine in author Nell Wise Wechter’s book Taffy of Torpedo Junction.

Slowly but surely, increased patrols by the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Coast Guard, and planes of the Army Air Corps, began to prevent the U-boat attacks. Blimps from a station at Elizabeth City searched for U-boats from high above, while private yachts and sailboats with two-way radios were sent out into the ocean to patrol and harass German warships. The military set up top-secret submarine listening and tracking facilities at places like Ocracoke to detect passing U-boats.

Many people who lived along the coast during World War II remember having to turn off their house lights at night and having to put black tape over their car headlights, so that lights on shore would not help the Germans find their way in the darkness. Even so, the government did not order a general blackout until August 1942. By then, most of the attacks had ended.

On April 14, 1942, the first German U-boat fought by the American navy in U.S. waters was sunk sixteen miles southeast of Nags Head. Within the next couple of months, three more U-boats were sunk along the North Carolina coast: one by a U.S. Army Air Corps bomber, one by a U.S. Coast Guard patrol ship, and one by a U.S. Navy destroyer. North Carolina’s total of four sunken U-boats represents the most of any state. By that July, the commander of Germany’s U-boats became discouraged. He redirected his remaining warships to the northern Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Nevertheless, Germany considered its attacks against the United States a success, even if they failed to win the war. Gerhard Weinberg, a professor of history at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, has since called the war zone off the U.S. coast in 1942 “the greatest single defeat ever suffered by American naval power.”

As the years have passed, most of the physical evidence of World War II U-boat encounters off North Carolina’s coast has vanished. Submerged off the state’s beaches are the remains of at least 60 ships and countless unexploded torpedoes, depth charges, and contact mines. Even today, small patches of blackened sand offer reminders of the massive oil spills of 1942. On Ocracoke Island and at Cape Hatteras, cemeteries contain the graves of six British sailors who perished in North Carolina’s waters. Many people living in the state don’t know about the time when war came so close. But older Tar Heels who lived on the coast back then remember. In fact, they would love to tell you about it.

*At the time of the publication of this article, Kevin P. Duffus was an author and documentary filmmaker specializing in North Carolina maritime history. He lectured for the North Carolina Humanities Council on topics that included World War II along the state’s coast.


The Outer Banks is home to one of America's oldest and most baffling mysteries, the establishment and subsequent disappearance of "The Lost Colony."

The Southern Outer Banks, particularly Ocracoke Island, is notorious as the stomping grounds for some of history's most infamous pirates. Notable swashbucklers from Calico Jack to Anne Bonney and Mary Reed, arguably the most famous women pirates, have made a splash in this area, robbing privateers blind and making intricate, sneaky escapes in the inlets and soundside waters off of these barrier islands. Lost Colony


Hatteras II Str - History

Open Mon.-Sat. 10 a.m. to 4 p.m.

The Graveyard of the Atlantic Museum offers programming year round for people of all ages. Daily offerings include a family- and youth-friendly scavenger hunt that has visitors searching for objects throughout the museum and receiving a special surprise for their efforts. The museum also introduces a new exhibit annually. Admission to the museum is free. Our programs are also free unless otherwise noted. Donations are always appreciated.

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The Battle of the Atlantic: Part One in a Three-Part Series
Early morning before sunrise on January 19, 1942, an earthquake-like tremble was felt by residents on Hatteras Island. An orange fireball lit up the horizon looking out toward the ocean. Black smoke filled the night sky.
Just seven miles from Avon, one of seven Hatteras Island towns, a German U-boat torpedoed the U.S. freighter, City of Atlanta. The explosion sank the ship killing all but three of the 47 crew. Hours later, the same German submarine attacked two more ships. Less than six weeks earlier, the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor. The violence of World War II now arrived on America’s East Coast and North Carolina’s beaches.
This wasn’t the first time U-boats came to U.S. waters. During World War I, three German subs sank ten ships off the North Carolina coast to demonstrate their naval power. By 1942, U-boats were larger, faster, and more deadly. Their presence in American waters meant war.
Within hours of the U-boat attack, debris and oil began washing up on the beaches. Over the next six months, along the East Coast and the Gulf of Mexico, at least sixty-five U-boats attacked American and British merchant ships. The ships were carrying important supplies to the Allies in Europe. This included fuel, food, lumber, metals, rubber, and cotton. By July of 1942, 397 ships were sunk or damaged. More than 5,000 people were killed. City of Atlanta courtesy of Steamship Historical Society of America. . See More See Less

Today is #Juneteenth, the commemoration of the official end of slavery for those still held in bondage deep in Confederate territory by 1865. But for the estimated 500+ enslaved living on the Outer Banks and countless others in eastern North Carolina in 1861, their bondage ended with the cannons fired by fellow Black citizens. Eastern North Carolina and the Outer Banks are remembered as early witnesses to a "new birth of freedom" as hundreds of slaves took refuge on the Union-held Outer Banks and when African Americans first began to be directly involved in combat to free the slaves.

Today, the former site of one of these first refugee camps, Hotel d’Afrique, near the Graveyard of the Atlantic Museum and Cape Hatteras’ neighbor on Roanoke Island, Fort Raleigh National Historic Site are a part of the National Underground Railroad Network which commemorates of the resistance to and the flight from enslavement. To learn more about this Civil War history of Cape Hatteras, click here: www.nps.gov/caha/learn/historyculture/civilwar.htm

What does folklore tell us that islanders did on the Outer Banks to ease their aches and pains? They turned to nature and home items to doctor themselves. It’s not advisable to try these remedies but it certainly is interesting to ponder their origins whether having some legitimate basis in the healing arts or being a “magical” potion that might have been hawked from a street-side platform.
These remedies were collected from nine local folks and published in a Cape Hatteras student publication, Sea Chest, in 1973. Note that some of the ailments and remedies use colloquial names making them even more interesting and mysterious with those names actually being absent from the dictionary and the internet. Efforts were made to identify ingredients and are noted, but not all were successful therefore putting you on the trail to discover, for example, just what a scavish is. You might try asking an old timer.
Islanders must have suffered from a preponderance of boils as there are many remedies for them. Bless their hearts! Some remedies listed below will have you laughing out loud, and maybe that was the intent. For as you know, laughter is the best medicine!

Boils and Sores
• Use wormwood leaves to take the fever out of sores.
• For boils, create a poultice to draw boils to a head by putting sugar on fatback and bandaging it with a clean cloth.
• Create a poultice for a boil using wet crumbs inside a biscuit.
• Make a paste by soaking old bread and placing it on a boil.
• Use scrapings from Octagon soap to make a poultice for boils.
• Make a poultice by pulverizing scavish and adding honey.
High Fevers
• Scrape the surface of white potatoes and adhere them to the wrists and bottoms of the feet.
• Reduce fever from caked breasts (nursing mothers) using collard leaves wilted in hot water until pliable and spread with mutton tallow and place on the offending area.

Thrash (possibly referring to thrush)
• Using thread, string sowbugs and tie them around a child’s neck.
Colic
• For relief from colic, collect a big collard leaf and some grub worms. Chop them up together and put them in a bag tied around the baby’s neck.
Congestion
• Mix flour and dry mustard into a paste and spread it on a cloth covered with red flannel and put upon the chest for congestion.
• For croup, boil sugar and onions into a syrup.
• For colds, cough and croup, put five drops of kerosene on sugar.
• For cough use five drops of British Oil on sugar.
Punctures
• For nail punctures, combine turpentine and salt pork to draw out the poison.
• To heal punctures from nail holes, remove the nail and soak it in kerosene. Place it over the door. Remove it every day for nine days and re-soak it in kerosene. After that time, the hole should be healed.
Itching
• Use lard and sulfur.
• For hives and welts, use horse mint tea. Horse mint grows wild over the island, but tastes terrible.
• Rub hives with cornmeal
Measles
• Brew black pepper tea from ground pepper and drink to bring out measles when they don’t appear.
Tonic
• Mix molasses and sulfur as a spring tonic.
Kidney Trouble
• Mix four to five drops of turpentine on sugar for kidney trouble.
Rheumatism and Arthritis
• Carry a buckeye, which is a nut that looks like a chestnut. Women carry it in a little bag and men carry it in their pockets.
• Mix rubbing alcohol and wintergreen flavoring and hints of camphor. Use as a liniment for sore joints.
Bleeding
• To stop bleeding, mix cobwebs and soot from a chimney of an old wood stove. This is said to coagulate the blood, but it may leave a black scar.
Weight Gain
• For people who can’t gain weight or are extremely sick and need strengthening create a tonic using raw egg, milk, sugar, and a tablespoon of whisky.
Something in the Eye
• Put an eyestone in the eye. An eyestone looks like a snail on one side and is flat on the other side. To tell if you have a good eyestone, place it in a dish of vinegar. If it starts crawling, it is a good one. They are about the size of the tip of a match. Spiderweb (Zigiella web) courtesy of Laura Bassett. . See More See Less

A Look Back – 1876, Hatteras
To get an understanding of what was happening in Hatteras in 1876, we perused newspaper archives to come up with articles that capture shipwreck and weather events including the tragedy of “Nuova Ottavia” in March 1876, when seven men from the Jones Hill Life-Saving Station in Currituck and nine of the thirteen crew members of the Italian bark were drowned. In a nutshell, the lifesavers had manned a lifeboat and went to “Nuova Ottavia’s” rescue but drowned except for one man. He lost his life the following day on a trip back to the bark.

Also, in March of the same year off Hatteras, the schooner “Shiloh” with Captain Hubbard wrecked at Cape Hatteras while carrying a cargo of sugar, molasses, hides, sheep skins and water casks. No lives were reported lost. Earlier in the same month, also off Hatteras, a hurricane hit while Captain Yates was running the schooner “S C Evans.’ The ship’s sails split causing the crew to stop and make repairs.

George Syversten, 26, of Norway, was not so lucky. He lost his life having been washed overboard the schooner Charles Sawyer earlier in March during a heavy southerly gale off Hatteras.

February was also a troublesome month that year with several ships having trouble in the Graveyard of the Atlantic due to heavy wind and seas. Deck loads and a foremast were lost, sails were split, bulwarks stove in and a crewman was washed overboard. A mate threw him a line, which he was able to catch. He was drawn back onto the boat.
Whether a catastrophe with loss of life or a gale causing split sails, all weather events have a fearsome nature as one never knows what is going to occur at any given time due to changeable nature. Also, remember, the ability to predict weather and the state of technology in 1876 was different than it is today. Even today, though, humankind is no match for the sea and winds. Illustration by J. H. Merriman. . See More See Less

U-85 Enigma Machine
A rare Enigma Machine, with technology that once baffled Allied code breakers, holds silent court at the Graveyard of the Atlantic Museum. But it’s history speaks volumes about the role it played in thwarting Allied forces during World War II. The machine is rare because its ship origin is known and it is a four-wheel model with new reflector that was introduced after February 1, 1942. It’s unusual to know the ship from which it came as German sailors were instructed to throw the machine overboard if capture was imminent. To find such a machine on a submarine, and one sporting the four wheels – three-wheel machines were more common – is quite a coup. This model was used exclusively by Atlantic U-boat groups.
On July 3, 2001, the Enigma Machine (Enigma M2946) was recovered from U-85, the first U-boat to sink off the Outer Banks during World War II. Divers Jim Bunch, and Roger and Richard Hunting, labored to locate and remove the instrument, and subsequently donated it to the Museum through an agreement with the Federal Republic of Germany. The part of the machine on display has already been conserved, and the remainder is in the process. Photo courtesy of the Graveyard of the Atlantic Museum and the NC Division of Archives and History. . See More See Less

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Unity (1914-1948)

Another Mitford girl who became infamous for her links to Fascism and Nazism, Unity or “Bobo”, as she was called by her sisters, tried to commit suicide when Britain declared war on Germany. A passionate admirer of Hitler who described the day she met the Nazi leader as the most beautiful in her life, she supposedly couldn’t bear the thought of the two countries taking up arms against each other. “Bobo”, who was at the time of the British declaration of war on Germany in Munich, took a pistol and shot herself in the head. She survived the suicide attempt but never fully recovered. She died in 1948 from cerebral swelling that developed around the bullet that remained in her head from that day.


’80s & ’90’s

Innovations in yachting continued rapidly in the 1980s, as Mrs. Denison designed the first-ever “country kitchen” galley, which remains an extremely popular feature on yachts today. Also, in 1983, Broward built the first ever yacht with triple diesel engines in the 92’ JERVET.

By the late 1980s, another Broward innovation was on the drawing board: the 112’ Britannia. Her triple Detroit diesel 16V92 engines with two outboard engines utilizing variable pitch Ulstein drives and the center engine, powering a Riva Calzoni jet drive, powered her ahead at an unthinkable 43 knots.

The early 1990s saw the commissioning of Britannia, then Pegasus, a 130’ triple engine tri-deck. By the early 1990s, Frank Denison was looking to go larger, and he accomplished this with the 1996 156’ Bubba Too. At the time Bubba Too was commissioned it was the largest U.S.-built aluminum vessel.

Broward continued through the '90s and into the millennium with vessels like the 1999 Cocoa Bean, the 2000 Aquasition, the 2001 London Lady, the 2002 Sigrun, the 2003 Lady Nancy, and up to the launch of the 2005 Soulmate.


Outer Banks Maps and Mile Post Markers

What some Outer Banks maps don't show is the very helpful Mile Post indicators, starting at MP 1 in Kitty Hawk going progressively higher in number as you travel south through Nags Head and onto Hatteras Island. (Yes, that does seem counter-intuitive.) Many businesses include their MP number in their addresses because, once you get the hang of it, you're more likely to understand where a business is generally located that way. For instance, the Aycock Brown Visitor Center in Kitty Hawk is at MP 1. Wright Brothers National Monument is at MP 8. Jockey's Ridge is MP 12.5. Jennette's Pier is MP 16.5. Hatteras Village is MP 72. So, if you’re looking for a business that indicates it’s at MP 15, you know it’s south of Jockey’s Ridge.


Nine Early Church Fathers Who Taught Jesus Is God

Many people think Emperor Constantine invented the deity of Christ in the fourth century, but a look at quotes from the early church fathers shows this is an egregious misrepresentation of the facts. In my mentoring letter this month, I offered a short list of quotations to demonstrate that the early church believed Jesus is God. Now I’d like to make the argument even stronger by offering thirty-six quotations from nine different early church fathers. All of these quotations predate the Council of Nicea.

Polycarp (AD 69-155) was the bishop at the church in Smyrna. Irenaeus tells us Polycarp was a disciple of John the Apostle. In his Letter to the Philippians he says,

Now may the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the eternal high priest himself, the Son of God Jesus Christ, build you up in faith and truth. and to us with you, and to all those under heaven who will yet believe in our Lord and God Jesus Christ and in his Father who raised him from the dead. 1

Ignatius (AD 50-117) was the bishop at the church in Antioch and also a disciple of John the Apostle. He wrote a series of letters to various churches on his way to Rome, where he was to be martyred. He writes,

Ignatius, who is also Theophorus, unto her which hath been blessed in greatness through the plentitude of God the Father which hath been foreordained before the ages to be for ever unto abiding and unchangeable glory, united and elect in a true passion, by the will of the Father and of Jesus Christ our God even unto the church which is in Ephesus [of Asia], worthy of all felicitation: abundant greeting in Christ Jesus and in blameless joy. 2

Being as you are imitators of God, once you took on new life through the blood of God you completed perfectly the task so natural to you. 3

There is only one physician, who is both flesh and spirit, born and unborn, God in man, true life in death, both from Mary and from God, first subject to suffering and then beyond it, Jesus Christ our Lord. 4

For our God, Jesus the Christ, was conceived by Mary according to God’s plan, both from the seed of David and of the Holy Spirit. 5

Consequently all magic and every kind of spell were dissolved, the ignorance so characteristic of wickedness vanished, and the ancient kingdom was abolished when God appeared in human form to bring the newness of eternal life. 6

For our God Jesus Christ is more visible now that he is in the Father. 7

I glorify Jesus Christ, the God who made you so wise, for I observed that you are established in an unshakable faith, having been nailed, as it were, to the cross of the Lord Jesus Christ. 8

Wait expectantly for the one who is above time: the Eternal, the Invisible, who for our sake became visible the Intangible, the Unsuffering, who for our sake suffered, who for our sake endured in every way. 9

Justin Martyr (AD 100-165) was an Christian apologist of the second century.

And that Christ being Lord, and God the Son of God, and appearing formerly in power as Man, and Angel, and in the glory of fire as at the bush, so also was manifested at the judgment executed on Sodom, has been demonstrated fully by what has been said. 10

Permit me first to recount the prophecies, which I wish to do in order to prove that Christ is called both God and Lord of hosts. 11

Therefore these words testify explicitly that He [Jesus] is witnessed to by Him [the Father] who established these things, as deserving to be worshipped, as God and as Christ. 12

The Father of the universe has a Son who also, being the first-begotten Word of God, is even God. And of old He appeared in the shape of fire and in the likeness of an angel to Moses and to the other prophets but now in the times of your reign, having, as we before said, become Man by a virgin. 13

For if you had understood what has been written by the prophets, you would not have denied that He was God, Son of the only, unbegotten, unutterable God. 14

Melito of Sardis (died c. AD 180) was the bishop of the church in Sardis.

He that hung up the earth in space was Himself hanged up He that fixed the heavens was fixed with nails He that bore up the earth was born up on a tree the Lord of all was subjected to ignominy in a naked body—God put to death!. [I]n order that He might not be seen, the luminaries turned away, and the day became darkened—because they slew God, who hung naked on the tree. This is He who made the heaven and the earth, and in the beginning, together with the Father, fashioned man who was announced by means of the law and the prophets who put on a bodily form in the Virgin who was hanged upon the tree who was buried in the earth who rose from the place of the dead, and ascended to the height of heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of the Father. 15

Irenaeus of Lyons (AD 130-202) was bishop of Lugdunum in Gaul, which is now Lyons, France. Irenaeus was born in Smyrna in Asia Minor, where he studied under bishop Polycarp, who in turn had been a disciple of John the Apostle.

For I have shown from the Scriptures, that no one of the sons of Adam is as to everything, and absolutely, called God, or named Lord. But that He is Himself in His own right, beyond all men who ever lived, God, and Lord, and King Eternal, and the Incarnate Word, proclaimed by all the prophets, the apostles, and by the Spirit Himself, may be seen by all who have attained to even a small portion of the truth. Now, the Scriptures would not have testified these things of Him, if, like others, He had been a mere man. He is the holy Lord, the Wonderful, the Counselor, the Beautiful in appearance, and the Mighty God, coming on the clouds as the Judge of all men—all these things did the Scriptures prophesy of Him. 16

He received testimony from all that He was very man, and that He was very God, from the Father, from the Spirit, from angels, from the creation itself, from men, from apostate spirits and demons. 17

Christ Jesus [is] our Lord, and God, and Savior, and King, according to the will of the invisible Father. 18

Christ Himself, therefore, together with the Father, is the God of the living, who spoke to Moses, and who was also manifested to the fathers. 19

Carefully, then, has the Holy Ghost pointed out, by what has been said, His birth from a virgin, and His essence, that He is God (for the name Emmanuel indicates this). And He shows that He is a man. [W]e should not understand that He is a mere man only, nor, on the other hand, from the name Emmanuel, should suspect Him to be God without flesh. 20

Clement of Alexandria (AD 150-215) was another early church father. He wrote around AD 200. He writes,

This Word, then, the Christ, the cause of both our being at first (for He was in God) and of our well-being, this very Word has now appeared as man, He alone being both, both God and man—the Author of all blessings to us by whom we, being taught to live well, are sent on our way to life eternal. The Word, who in the beginning bestowed on us life as Creator when He formed us, taught us to live well when He appeared as our Teacher that as God He might afterwards conduct us to the life which never ends. 21

For it was not without divine care that so great a work was accomplished in so brief a space by the Lord, who, though despised as to appearance, was in reality adored, the expiator of sin, the Savior, the clement, the Divine Word, He that is truly most manifest Deity, He that is made equal to the Lord of the universe because He was His Son, and the Word was in God. 22

Tertullian (AD 150-225) was an early Christian apologist. He said,

For God alone is without sin and the only man without sin is Christ, since Christ is also God. 23

Thus Christ is Spirit of Spirit, and God of God, as light of light is kindled. That which has come forth out of God is at once God and the Son of God, and the two are one. In this way also, as He is Spirit of Spirit and God of God, He is made a second in manner of existence—in position, not in nature and He did not withdraw from the original source, but went forth. This ray of God, then, as it was always foretold in ancient times, descending into a certain virgin, and made flesh in her womb, is in His birth God and man united. 24

Bear always in mind that this is the rule of faith which I profess by it I testify that the Father, and the Son, and the Spirit are inseparable from each other , and so will you know in what sense this is said. Now, observe, my assertion is that the Father is one, and the Son one, and the Spirit one, and that they are distinct from each other. This statement is taken in a wrong sense by every uneducated as well as every perversely disposed person, as if it predicated a diversity, in such a sense as to imply a separation among the Father, and the Son, and the Spirit. I am, moreover, obliged to say this, when they contend for the identity of the Father and Son and Spirit, that it is not by way of diversity that the Son differs from the Father, but by distribution: it is not by division that He is different, but by distinction because the Father is not the same as the Son, since they differ one from the other in the mode of their being. For the Father is the entire substance, but the Son is a derivation and portion of the whole, as He Himself acknowledges: “My Father is greater than I.” In the Psalm His inferiority is described as being “a little lower than the angels.” Thus the Father is distinct from the Son, being greater than the Son, inasmuch as He who begets is one, and He who is begotten is another He, too, who sends is one, and He who is sent is another and He, again, who makes is one, and He through whom the thing is made is another. Happily the Lord Himself employs this expression of the person of the Paraclete, so as to signify not a division or severance, but a disposition (of mutual relations in the Godhead) for He says, “I will pray the Father, and He shall send you another Comforter. even the Spirit of truth,” thus making the Paraclete distinct from Himself, even as we say that the Son is also distinct from the Father so that He showed a third degree in the Paraclete, as we believe the second degree is in the Son, by reason of the order observed in the Economy. Besides, does not the very fact that they have the distinct names of Father and Son amount to a declaration that they are distinct in personality? 25

As if in this way also one were not All, in that All are of One, by unity (that is) of substance while the mystery of the dispensation is still guarded, which distributes the Unity into a Trinity, placing in their order the three Persons—the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost: three, however, not in condition, but in degree not in substance, but in form not in power, but in aspect yet of one substance, and of one condition, and of one power, inasmuch as He is one God, from whom these degrees and forms and aspects are reckoned, under the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. 26

Hippolytus of Rome (AD 170-235) was a third-century theologian. He was a disciple of Irenaeus, who was a disciple of Polycarp, who was a disciple of John. He writes,

The Logos alone of this God is from God himself wherefore also the Logos is God, being the substance of God. 27

For, lo, the Only-begotten entered, a soul among souls, God the Word with a (human) soul. For His body lay in the tomb, not emptied of divinity but as, while in Hades, He was in essential being with His Father, so was He also in the body and in Hades. For the Son is not contained in space, just as the Father and He comprehends all things in Himself. 28

For all, the righteous and the unrighteous alike, shall be brought before God the Word. 29

Let us believe then, dear brethren, according to the tradition of the apostles, that God the Word came down from heaven, (and entered) into the holy Virgin Mary, in order that, taking the flesh from her, and assuming also a human, by which I mean a rational soul, and becoming thus all that man is with the exception of sin, He might save fallen man, and confer immortality on men who believe on His name. He now, coming forth into the world, was manifested as God in a body, coming forth too as a perfect man. For it was not in mere appearance or by conversion, but in truth, that He became man. Thus then, too, though demonstrated as God, He does not refuse the conditions proper to Him as man, since He hungers and toils and thirsts in weariness, and flees in fear, and prays in trouble. And He who as God has a sleepless nature, slumbers on a pillow. 30

Origen (AD 185-254) was another early Christian theologian. He writes,

Jesus Christ. in the last times, divesting Himself (of His glory), became a man, and was incarnate although God, and while made a man remained the God which He was. 31

Seeing God the Father is invisible and inseparable from the Son, the Son is not generated from Him by “prolation,” as some suppose. For if the Son be a “prolation” of the Father (the term “prolation” being used to signify such a generation as that of animals or men usually is), then, of necessity, both He who “prolated” and He who was “prolated” are corporeal. For we do not say, as the heretics suppose, that some part of the substance of God was converted into the Son, or that the Son was procreated by the Father out of things non-existent, i.e., beyond His own substance, so that there once was a time when He did not exist. How, then, can it be asserted that there once was a time when He was not the Son? For that is nothing else than to say that there was once a time when He was not the Truth, nor the Wisdom, nor the Life, although in all these He is judged to be the perfect essence of God the Father for these things cannot be severed from Him, or even be separated from His essence. 32

For we who say that the visible world is under the government to Him who created all things, do thereby declare that the Son is not mightier than the Father, but inferior to Him. And this belief we ground on the saying of Jesus Himself, “The Father who sent Me is greater than I.” And none of us is so insane as to affirm that the Son of man is Lord over God. But when we regard the Savior as God the Word, and Wisdom, and Righteousness, and Truth, we certainly do say that He has dominion over all things which have been subjected to Him in this capacity, but not that His dominion extends over the God and Father who is Ruler over all. 33

Wherefore we have always held that God is the Father of His only-begotten Son, who was born indeed of Him, and derives from Him what He is, but without any beginning, not only such as may be measured by any divisions of time, but even that which the mind alone can contemplate within itself, or behold, so to speak, with the naked powers of the understanding. 34

But it is monstrous and unlawful to compare God the Father, in the generation of His only-begotten Son, and in the substance of the same, to any man or other living thing engaged in such an act for we must of necessity hold that there is something exceptional and worthy of God which does not admit of any comparison at all, not merely in things, but which cannot even be conceived by thought or discovered by perception, so that a human mind should be able to apprehend how the unbegotten God is made the Father of the only-begotten Son. Because His generation is as eternal and everlasting as the brilliancy which is produced from the sun. For it is not by receiving the breath of life that He is made a Son, by any outward act, but by His own nature. 35

And that you may understand that the omnipotence of Father and Son is one and the same, as God and the Lord are one and the same with the Father, listen to the manner in which John speaks in the Apocalypse: “Thus saith the Lord God, which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty.” For who else was “He which is to come” than Christ? And as no one ought to be offended, seeing God is the Father, that the Savior is also God so also, since the Father is called omnipotent, no one ought to be offended that the Son of God is also called omnipotent. 36

**Nearly all of the above early writing can be read at Early Christian Writings.


Upcoming Events

Chicamacomico Coast Guard Museum 

Established in 1874, the Chicamacomico Life Saving Station was a predecessor to the modern U.S. Coast Guard, of which it became a part in 1915. The station features fantastic architecture and special summer programs and events for the family. 

With its two stations and five outbuildings,਌hicamacomico Life-Saving Station (pronounced chi-ka-ma-COM-i-co) is the most complete site of all remaining life-saving stations in North Carolina and one of the most complete sites in the nation. This site and museum is located on Hatteras Island in the village of Rodanthe on the Outer Banks of North Carolina.

They are open to the public from mid-April through November with Apparatus Drill Reenactments running weekly May through September, weather permitting.

Torpedo Alley and Graveyard of the Atlantic Museum

The remains of more than 1,500 ships line our seafloor which is why The Outer Banks&apos coast is known as the "Graveyard of the Atlantic". These wrecks include Uboats from WWI and II, with remnants that can be seen at the Graveyard of the Atlantic Museum. 

The Graveyard of the Atlantic Museum offers programming year round for people of all ages. Programming from mid-May through September includes our Salty Dawg Series held every Tuesday at 2 p.m. Presenters celebrate all things coastal to include seafood cooking, history and culture talks on the Civil War and WWII, maritime art and music, fishing history and life-saving stories, and even local language. On Wednesdays at 10:30 mid-May through September, youth and families participate in Maritime Crafts while learning snippets of local history. From mid-May through mid-November on Wednesday afternoons Drew Pullen presents the popular Civil War on Hatteras Island talks at 2:30. Special events include Sea Story time in April, our Underwater Heritage Symposium also in April, British War Graves ceremonies in May, History Teas in April, September and November and our gala, Holiday at the Museum in December. While on Hatteras Island, you can take off at the Billy Mitchell Airport, named for the WWI pilot, U.S. Army Air Service Brigadier General Billy Mitchell, an advocate on the advancement of aircraft bombing techniques. These techniques were tested and demonstrated off Cape Hatteras in 1923.

Civil War Trail

Winding through Roanoke Island and Hatteras Island are parts of the Dare County Civil War Trail - a great way to experience a fascinating time in the history of The Outer Banks. Along the way you&aposll find important historical monuments and displays like the Battle of Chicamacomico Races, where the Confederacy attempted to reclaim Hatteras Island from the Union, and the Freedman&aposs Colony. Visit the British Cemetery in਋uxton near Cape Hatteras Lighthouse. You can visit these war graves of fallen allies from WWII,ꃊsualties of Uboat attack. 

Civil Air Patrol Museum at Dare County Regional Airport

The Operations Room at Dare County Regional Airport Museum on Roanoke Island contains photos and documents of the pre-WW2 era, focused on Dave Driskill, local barnstormer, air service operator, pilot for the National Park Service, test pilot for Kellett Autogiro, and, after WW2, the first manager of the airport. The main room contains many references specific to the history of the airport and its two main tenants during WW2. On display are authentic uniforms, photographs, documents, and artifacts of the Civil Air Patrol Coastal Patrol Base 16 (CPB16) which operated here from July 1942 until August 1943. About 95% of the CAP personnel, men and women, were Tarheels.ਊlso on display are authentic uniforms, photographs, documents, and artifacts from the US Navy squadrons that received operational training at NAAS Manteo from March 1943 until the end of WW2. These include VF-17 and VF-50.

Duck Research Pier and Bombing Range at Alligator River

In the WWII days, the town of Duck was used as a bombing range. The land, not highly populated then, is now where the Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility is located on the Duck Research Pier. An active bombing range still exists in Dare County, Navy Dare Bombing Range, surrounded by Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge. 


Underwater battlefield

Under the water, the sunken ships of both sides also remain. Gregory Modelle, a Somers Point architect and avid scuba diver, has visited the wreck of the Jacob Jones and other ships sunk by U-boats. Like other shipwrecks, the Jacob Jones is now little more than a mound of debris.

“It was really blown to pieces,” Modelle said. Slammed by the torpedoes, the ship was further torn apart when the depth charges on board exploded as it sank. A few things remain recognizable on these wrecks an anchor, a propeller shaft. Boilers were built for extreme pressure, he said, so they often remain, and ceramic and glass won’t corrode in the salt water as does steel.

“Anything brass is still there. All the navigation equipment. These things are highly sought after by wreck divers,” he said. “I always look for portholes.”

In 1991, divers found what they later learned was the wreck of U-869, a German submarine formerly thought to have been sunk off Gibraltar. Modelle has never visited that wreck, which sits at a dangerous 240 feet below the surface, but he has sketched the wreck based on video captured by another diver. The outer skin quickly rusts away, he said, leaving the ribs and the pressure hull visible.

Drawing by Gregory Modelle

Like the other wrecks, Modelle said, the submarines are now home to lobsters and other sea creatures seeking shelter, acting like a steel reef on the silty bottom of the sea.


Watch the video: 1960 Hatteras 41 (August 2022).