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Temple of the Moon, Teotihuacan

Temple of the Moon, Teotihuacan

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Secret Tunnel Discovered Beneath the Ancient Temple of the Moon

A secret passageway discovered near the Pyramid of the Moon in the ancient city of Teotihuacan may have been a way for the people there to emulate the underworld, archaeologists said.

Scans of what appears to be a hidden underground tunnel show that the cavity extends from the center of the Plaza of the Moon to the Pyramid of the Moon, reported archaeologists from Mexico's National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH) and the National Autonomous University of Mexico.

The finding confirms that the ancient people of Teotihuacan dug tunnels under their monuments, possibly to emulate the underworld &mdash a place where life, plants and food were thought to be created, said archaeologist Verónica Ortega, director of the Integral Conservation Project of the Plaza de la Luna. [In Photos: Enormous Ancient Mexican Temple]

The Pyramid of the Moon was built in seven different stages, from 100 B.C. to A.D. 450, the researchers said. It began as a small platform and eventually grew into a 150-foot-tall (46 meters) pyramid that held tombs filled with human and animal sacrifices, Live Science previously reported.

Researchers found the tunnel in early June by using an electrical tomography scan, the INAH reported. To implement the scan, the researchers injected electric current into the subsoil and measured the resistance of the different materials found there. Then, they used the resulting data to create preliminary 2D and 3D models.

These models indicated that the straight tunnel is about 30 feet (10 m) below ground, the researchers said.

The tunnel likely served as a place for rituals &mdash possibly to carry out ceremonies for the different agricultural cycles &mdash and will help experts understand more about the culture's symbolic discourse, the researchers said.

Although there are more entries in the site, guides prefer the tour to the Pyramid of the Moon, because from its platform you can best imagine the grandeur of the old city. From more than 40 meters high, it is seen that the impressive Death Avenue leaves in front of the pyramid and extends straight to Templo del Quetzalcóatl Temple, leaving the Pyramid of the Sun on the left. Other temples and edifices accompany the 2.5 km high road, lined up by the stars, and seems to lose its end in the mountains. The discovery was made possible by a CT scan made in the pyramid area. Thus, archaeologists have noticed the presence of an underground tunnel dug 10 meters (33 feet) deep.

Specialists believe that there are offerings in this secret passage. Similar tunnels have also been discovered in other areas of the Teotihuacan archaeological site. This tunnel links the pyramid of the central square of the complex, the Plaza de la Luna, where religious rituals and human sacrifices took place, involving about 100,000 people, writes Daily Mail. The tunnel under The Pyramid Of The Moon would have played a symbolic role for the ancient inhabitants of the area, believes Veronica Ortega, the archaeologist who coordinates the research. Thus, the tunnel would actually symbolize the road to the “Underworld”, which is why it was filled with offerings – plants and food – for the gods.

The Pyramid of the Moon was built in several successive stages, being completed in 450 BC. It has a height of 46 meters and a base of 168 square meters. Archaeological evidence shows that there have been human sacrifices since the year 200 BC. The tombs of the pyramid contain human and animal remains and various funerary objects. The pyramid was dedicated to the Goddess of the Moon, considered the supreme goddess, the one who created the world, a symbol of life and fertility.

Teotihuacan Temples

Teotihuacan temples reveal that the ancient people who lived in this area of the basin of Mexico had a very religious culture. There are two main pyramids at Teotihuacan that served as places of worship for citizens of this ancient civilization. Located along the Avenue of the Dead are the Pyramid of the Sun and Pyramid of the Moon, and religious artifacts were found in both buildings.

The architectural style of the temples is called talud tablero, meaning slope and panel. This design of platforms allowed them to create the pyramid shapes that visitors see today. In fact, the third-largest pyramid of the world is found at Teotihuacan. The Pyramid of the Sun is 210 feet tall, though it was thought to be taller when it had a small temple on the top. Built between 100 and 150 AD, this is the most impressive building in the archaeological site.

The other most famous of the Teotihuacan temples is the Pyramid of the Moon. This was the first large-scale structure built in Teotihuacan. Built in the first century AD but renovated over time, the temple now reaches a height of 138 feet.

Mexico City Map

While these two are the most popular pyramids at Teotihuacan, there is one more of significance: the Pyramid of the Feathered Serpent. It may be small, but it is covered in carved serpent heads weighing more than four tons each. Archaeologists think it was built by a ruler of this time period and that he is buried inside, as the serpent is a symbol of leadership. At one time, the temples were covered in plaster and painted, possibly in bright colors such as red. Another interesting fact is that only priests were allowed to climb the steps of the pyramids.

Conservation projects provide an important stimulus for the community

Teotihuacán was included on the World Monuments Watch in 1998 and 2000. With funding from American Express, WMF supported conservation of the iconic mural paintings at Tepantitla with the participation of students from the School of Conservation of Guadalajara (ECRO). The restored murals have generated interest in this less-visited area of the site.

The Temple of Quetzalcoatl was included individually on the 2004 Watch because it was in a state of extreme deterioration. With funding from the Bernard Selz Foundation, which was matched by the Instituto Nacional de Antropología y Historia, we supported a multi-year conservation project at Quetzalcoatl Temple beginning in 2003. The work included emergency intervention, cleaning, archaeological research, and maintenance, and its focus was to diagnose conservation issues and develop a maintenance plan. Of particular concern was the temple’s western façade, which had suffered the most rapid deterioration. A field lab was created to monitor dimensions, and a graphic information study database was established to manage conservation and ongoing maintenance. The feasibility of installing protective covers, removing the soluble salts, replacing the failing supports, and promoting the conservation efforts though exhibits was studied. Local conservators were employed and trained to maintain the structures after project completion. We also collaborated with CyArk, an American nonprofit organization dedicated to archiving 3D survey information of endangered monuments, to record the site for a broad range of documentation needs and to provide public access to this imagery. We later supported a symposium on architectural shelters to encourage greater sharing of technical information on site protection and management.

Temple of the Moon, Teotihuacan - History

A publication of the Archaeological Institute of America

The new tomb was discovered within Teotihuacan's Pyramid of the Moon, which marks the northern end of the site. The sacred peak of Cerro Gordo looms in the distance. (© Justin Kerr)

A burial chamber containing what may be the remains of a retainer of an early ruler of Teotihuacan, an ancient metropolis 30 miles northeast of Mexico City, has been found within the Pyramid of the Moon, at the northern end of the site's main thoroughfare, the Street of the Dead. Discovered by Arizona State University (ASU) archaeologist Saburo Sugiyama, the skeleton, thought to be that of an adult male who was bound and sacrificed, was buried in a square chamber 11.3 feet on each side and five feet deep. He was surrounded by more than 150 burial offerings, including obsidian and greenstone figurines, obsidian blades and points, pyrite mirrors, conch and other shells, and the remains of eight birds (hawks or falcons) and two jaguars, which may have been buried alive. "The quality of the offerings," says Sugiyama, "is exceptional, particularly in light of the more than 1,200 burials found at the site so far."

A greenstone figurine with inlaid pyrite eyes (Brad Lang) [LARGER IMAGE]

Mexico's first great city, Teotihuacan coalesced out of a number of small hamlets in the early years of the first century B.C., after, as archaeologists believe, the discovery of a four-chambered lava-tube cave in the Teotihuacan Valley. Caves played an integral role in Mesoamerican religion, being places of emergence of gods and ancestors as well as portals to the underworld, the world of demons and other potent beings. The Teotihuacan cave may have held particular significance, its four lobes representing the four parts of the Mesoamerican cosmos. It soon became a focal point of ritual activity and settlement in the valley. Teotihuacan's Pyramid of the Sun was built directly over the cave in the second century A.D.

Plan of Teotihuacan (Lynda D'Amico) (left) [LARGER IMAGE] Location of the tomb within the Pyramid of the Moon (drawing based on Juan Acosta, 1978 trenches and location of tomb from author's notes) (right) [LARGER IMAGE]

As veneration of the shrine grew, so did the city. By the middle of the second century A.D., its ground plan had been worked out, and the first phase of construction of its most important monuments was well under way. By A.D. 200, all major construction at the site had ceased, and nearly all attention was paid to building and improving the city's residential areas. From A.D. 200 to 600, Teotihuacan continued to flourish, with long-distance trade becoming an important factor in its prosperity, and the site's influence was felt throughout the Mesoamerican world. At its height the city may have been home to as many as 200,000 people. Its success did not last. Sometime sometime around A.D. 750 the city burned to the ground, possibly torched by invaders from the city of Cacaxtla, 130 miles to the east (see "Star Wars of Ancient Mexico," November/December 1993).

Photo mosaic shows tomb finds, including greenstone figurines, obsidian blades, and human remains. (Left and middle, Brad Lang right, Janet Montoya) (left) [LARGER IMAGE] Author's sketch of the layout of the tomb and associated artifacts (right) [LARGER IMAGE]

Teotihuacan had lain in ruins for nearly six centuries when the nomadic Mexica tribes, the Aztecs, wandered into the Valley of Mexico. By their own accounts they were awestruck by the city's splendor, believing Teotihuacan to be the birthplace of the gods (in Nahuatl, Teotihuacan means "Place of the Gods"). In reality they probably knew little more about the site than we know today, despite nearly a century of excavation.

Archaeologist Saburo Sugiyama at the entrance to new-found tomb (Angela M.H. Schuster) [LARGER IMAGE]

The inhabitants of Teotihuacan were a multiethnic population who worshiped a goddess, possibly the embodiment of Cerro Gordo ("Fat Hill"), a sacred mountain just north of the site associated with the goddess cult and the region's fertility. Prior to this discovery of the new tomb, several mass graves, excavated between 1982 and 1989, had been found around and beneath the Temple of the Feathered Serpent (Quetzelcoatl) at the southern end of the site. The 137 people buried there were apparently sacrificed, their hands tied behind their backs, during the construction of the pyramid. They appear to have been killed as part of a warfare cult which, according to archaeoastronomer John B. Carlson, was regulated by the position of Venus in the heavens during its 584-day celestial cycle. Many of these individuals wore collars composed of imitation human maxillae with teeth carved from shell, as well as several real maxillae and mandibles, and were deposited in the pits with more than 2,100 pieces of worked shell and numerous obsidian blades and points. Archaeologists also recovered several slate disks resembling the pyrite inlaid mirrors worn by later Aztec warriors and often depicted as part of Toltec and other highland Mexican military costume. Sugiyama and Mexican archaeologist Rubén Cabrera Castro of the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (INAH) believe that those found with mirrors may have been warriors who appear to have been seated facing away from the center of the pyramid as if to guard whatever it contained. According to Sugiyama, the offerings from the new tomb resemble those found in the Temple of the Feathered Serpent. "I see a specific association between the two sets of offerings," he says. "Both were quite different from artifacts found in the sites residential areas."

Greenstone figurine with inlaid pyrite eyes (Brad Lang) (left) [LARGER IMAGE] Flaked obsidian figure (Janet Montoya) (right) [LARGER IMAGE]

According to ASU's George Cowgill, "The latest discovery is the oldest major undisturbed burial found at Teotihuacan," adding that "while it is early in the excavation, this burial is associated with that of an extremely important person in the early history of the site. If the remains are those of a retainer, a royal tomb may be located nearby, perhaps near the center of this temple construction. It is also possible that this person was sacrificed as part of the building's dedication. Material is coming out of the tomb hour by hour. We suspect that it will be another three months before the excavation is complete."

Carved earspools (Janet Montoya) (left) [LARGER IMAGE] Ceramic vessel (Janet Montoya) (right) [LARGER IMAGE]

"What has been found so far is entirely consistent with Teotihuacan dedicatory caches," says Columbia University's Esther Pasztory. "The most interesting finds are the stone or shell earspools, which may have been imported from outside the Valley of Mexico, and the greenstone figurine with what appear to be pyrite eyes. We have many of these in museum collections, but only a couple are known from a secure archaeological context."

The remains of eight hawks or falcons, including this one, were found in the tomb along with the bones of two jaguars, one of which may have been buried alive. (Brad Lang) [LARGER IMAGE]

The grave, which dates to about A.D. 150, is associated with pyramid's fourth construction phase. What we see today is the fifth and last, built ca. A.D. 250. "The pyramid of the Moon," says Sugiyama, "started out as a rather small temple beneath what is now the five-tiered platform in front of the pyramid. After two additional construction episodes, the builders embarked on the construction of the pyramid itself." The construction method used for the pyramid may have protected the tomb from looters, who have pillaged the site over the centuries. "The Pyramid of the Moon," says Cowgill, "is difficult to dig because of the loose rock used in its construction. While it is dangerous for archaeologists to tunnel into the pyramid, the structure is resistant to looters." Sugiyama and his team must brace and reinforce the tunnels as the excavation progresses. "We began our work in June 1998," says Sugiyama. "Since then we have tunneled through the east-west axis of the pyramid at its junction with the five-tiered platform. We also tunneled south along the north-south axis toward the platform's central staircase. We had to stop, however, when we began hearing the footsteps of tourists climbing the pyramid above our heads. During these excavations we were able to document the structure's early history. It was shortly after we began tunneling north along the north-south axis, just beyond the junction between the pyramid and the platform, that we happened upon the tomb. We will continue tunneling north until we reach the pyramid's center. We are now about 30 meters from the center, which we expect to reach sometime in June." Sugiyama and his team suspect that a royal tomb may lay at the pyramid's center. Only time will tell. "At that time," he says, "we will know whether the sacrificed individual is associated with the grave of a royal personage or simply part of a dedication."

Numerous obsidian bifacially flaked blades and stemmed points were recovered along with a conch shell (lower left). (Brad Lang) [LARGER IMAGE]

According to Cowgill, scholars have long suspected that there were royal burials in the Pyramid of the Moon, in keeping with the Mesoamerican tradition known from sites such as the Maya cities of Copán in western Honduras and Palenque in Chiapas, Mexico. The excavations have been sponsored by the National Science Foundation, the National Geographic Society, Arizona State University, and INAH.

Mica, And Why Its Builders Used It In The Construction Of Teotihuacan

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The Ancient City of Teotihuacan is one of the most mysterious ancient archaeological sites on the planet. Located around 45 kilometers from Mexico City, the archaeological site of colossal proportions has become one of the most important ancient sites in the Americas.

The ancient city of Teotihuacan is surrounded by many temples, pyramids and a 1700 meter long avenue, which is known as the Avenue of the Dead. Researchers believe that there are around 500 meters of the Avenue that have yet to be uncovered. Many researchers believe that this mysterious avenue was made to represent the Milky Way.

The architectural complex is oriented along the axis of the largest of the pyramids, the Pyramid of the Sun, with a deviation of 15 degrees and 30 minutes in respect towards True North matching its axis with the passage of the sun. The base of this incredible pyramid is not as accurate as the Great Pyramid of Egypt is. It measures 222×225 meters which are almost the same as the Egyptian counterpart which has 230 meters. The Great Pyramid of Egypt is much taller compared to the one in Teotihuacan While the Egyptian pyramid rises 147 meters, the Mexican pyramid at Teotihuacan is only 65 meters tall.

Unlike other temples and pyramids found across the globe, the Pyramid of the Sun in Teotihuacan faces west. The second biggest Pyramid at Teotihuacan is the Pyramid of the Moon, located at the other side of the avenue of the dead. The Pyramid of the Moon has a height of 45 meters with base dimensions of 140×150 meters. Since the Pyramid of the Moon is located on a “natural” elevation, its appears to be the same height as the Pyramid of the Sun.

Researchers have excavated very little around the Pyramid of the Moon, and they are unsure if this pyramid has tunnels and chambers like the Pyramid of the Sun.

Image Credit: Shutterstock

Curiously, when Hernan Cortes and his men conquered the Aztec empire in the sixteenth century they asked the natives who had built such a colossal city, to what the Aztec replied We were not the builders of Teotihuacan, this city was built by the Quinanatzin, a race of giants who came from the heavens in the times of the SECOND SUN. The Aztecs were the ancient civilization that named the city Teotihuacan, but they did not know the original name of the city. Teotihuacan can be translated to City where men become gods. The Aztecs named the pyramids of Teotihuacan Tonatiuh and Metal tzaquati ( home of the Sun and the Moon). The Aztec empire told the Spanish that the Pyramid of the Sun was covered with black basalt in the distant past, but when they arrived at the city, it was completely abandoned.
Mainstream archaeology has many doubts when it comes to Teotihuacan, as there are numerous things they cannot explain.

Official archeological dates place Teotihuacan to the first and second centuries AD, and researchers believe the ancient city reached a peak population of around 200,000 inhabitants. Due to unknown reasons, the city was abandoned between 650 and 750 AD. It is believed that the inhabitants of Teotihuacan were a mixture of native people of Mesoamerica.

Another great mystery about Teotihuacan is the extremely high mathematical and astronomical knowledge demonstrated in the construction and alignment of its grand boulevards and temples. Archaeologists consider the culture that erected this incredible construction as being primitive and lacking basic elements for the development of civilization and writing.

In 1906, another surprising discovery was made in Teotihuacan as researchers discovered a thick layer of Mica on top of the Pyramid of the Sun.

The Mica group of sheet silicate (phyllosilicate) minerals includes several closely related materials having nearly perfect basal cleavage. Sheet mica is used in electrical components, electronics, isinglass, and atomic force microscopy. Other uses include diaphragms for oxygen-breathing equipment, marker dials for navigation compasses, optical filters, pyrometers, thermal regulators, stove and kerosene heater windows, radiation aperture covers for microwave ovens and mica thermic heater elements. Mica is birefringent and is therefore commonly used to make quarter and half wave plates. Specialized applications for sheet mica are found in aerospace components in air-, Ground-, and sea-launched missile systems, laser devices, medical electronics, and radar systems. Mica is mechanically stable in micrometer-thin sheets which are relatively transparent to radiation (such as alpha particles) while being impervious to most gases. – Wikipedia

Most importantly, researchers have not found Mica in any other archaeological site in the vicinity, or in the Americas. Why there are traces of Mica at the Pyramid of the Sun and other constructions in Teotihuacan is a mystery that archaeology has yet to explain properly. Mysteriously, the type of Mica used in Teotihuacan is believed to have originated in Brazil.

The Pyramid of the Sun was covered by a layer of 4 meters of dirt which researchers believe were placed on the Pyramid on purpose. Researchers needed five years to remove thousands of tons of dirt to clean the base and surface of the Pyramid.

As you can see, the incredible city complex of ancient Teotihuacan raises more questions than archaeology is able to answer. Why the builders used Mica in the construction of Teotihuacan, and why is it that the complex is astronomically oriented are just two of the major questions asked by millions of people worldwide.

New discovery points to Teotihuacán starting in the Pyramid of the Moon

The discovery of a natural cave under the Moon pyramid and its symbolic orientation, could demonstrate that this was the starting point for the construction of the once “city of the gods”.

Under the Moon pyramid, in Teotihuacán, Mexico, archaeologists have corroborated a discovery that took place here. between the years 2017 and 2018: a natural cavity 15 meters in diameter and one or more tunnels under its foundations, about eight meters deep.

Until three decades ago it was thought that the cave inside the other great pyramid of the complex, that of the Sun, was also of natural origin, so it was assumed that the builders would have left from that point to trace the great city. However, more recent studies have shown that the latter’s tunnel is artificial, leaving the Moon’s pyramid as the zero point.

To reach this conclusion, specialists from INAH (National Institute of Anthropology and History of Mexico), in collaboration with the Institute of Geophysics of UNAM, used non-invasive geophysical techniques (ANT and ERT) that allowed identifying the large cavity under the building , as well as some access tunnels.

“”The fact that this cavity (located in the Pyramid of the Moon) was not excavated by the pre-Hispanic inhabitants, as in the case of the tunnels located under the Pyramid of the Sun and the Temple of the Feathered Serpent, offers a novel perspective on the origin of planning for the metropolis,” says Denisse L. Argote Espino, researcher at the Directorate of Archaeological Studies at INAH.

These studies also confirmed that the ancient inhabitants of Teotihuacán reproduced the same pattern of tunnels, whose purpose was to emulate the underworld, in all its great monuments.

Symbolic orientation

The mouth of the natural cavity below the Pyramid of the Moon is oriented towards Cerro Gordo, a mountain of sacred character, which seems to confirm its symbolic and primordial relationship.

Argote Espino adds that the analysis of the 3D-ERT model indicates the existence of two possible entrance tunnels on the north and east sides of the structure. Also, the data suggests an extension to the north and east side of the building towards the plaza.

The specialist also comments that the access tunnels of both the Pyramid of the Sun and the Temple of the Feathered Serpent keep an east-west sense, which is common in the Mesoamerican worldview.

Teotihuacán, located about 60 kilometers from Mexico City, was founded in 100 BC and fell around 650 AD. It was a great sacred metropolis, known for its pyramids, whose origins and inhabitants are still uncertain

“The importance of underground tunnels and caves in cosmic ideology and Mesoamerican culture, in general, and Teotihuacán, in particular, has been extensively proven in different research projects and publications. In addition to these, in the 21st century, in-depth studies were carried out on the Pyramid of the Moon, a monument dedicated to the female deity of water, fertility, the Moon and, probably, the Earth”, the researchers conclude.

The study detailing the new findings has been published in the Journal of Archaeological Science.


Desde la cuarta etapa constructiva de la Pirámide de la Luna, cada ampliación de este monumento mayor de Teotihuacan dio lugar a la realización de ofrendas mayores. En estos depósitos, contamos con los restos de varios individuos de sexo masculino cuya edad variaba entre 14 y 60 años. Las características bio-culturales de estos personajes sugieren que muchos de ellos eran extranjeros a la ciudad.

Fueron, en su mayoría, víctimas sacrificiales. En dos casos (Entierros 4 y 6), las víctimas fueron claramente decapitadas. En otros (Entierros 2, 3, y 6), no se pudo determinar con certeza la forma que tomó el sacrificio. Sin embargo, el carácter simultáneo del depósito y el hecho que sus integrantes tuvieron las manos juntadas en la espalda apunta hacia un ámbito sacrificial. En cuanto al Entierro 5, si los datos contextuales no son incompatibles con un tratamiento de este tipo, el carácter atípico del depósito no permite descartar otras explicaciones.

Otros aspectos indican ciertas diferencias. En el depósito más temprano, el Entierro 2, el único humano formaba parte de un dispositivo complejo en que los animales ocupaban un lugar importante. En los entierros subsecuentes, los humanos parecen ocupar un papel más importante. Notamos igualmente que varios depósitos revelan una diferenciación más o menos marcada entre los integrantes.

Finalmente, el análisis de los materiales incluidos en los rellenos de la pirámide muestra la existencia de otros rituales relacionados con cráneos humanos cuyo contexto es poco claro.

Teotihuacan Pyramid of the Moon and Plaza

Pyramid of the Moon
The Pyramid of the Moon was named by the Aztecs who discovered Teotihuacan centuries after the original inhabitants and builders had left the area. Reflecting the shape of the hill directly behind it Cerro Gordo, the Pyramid of the Moon is the starting point, the northern landmark of this extensive urban layout and of the Avenue of the Dead.

Teotihuacan Pyramid of the Moon and Plaza

The Pyramid of the Moon was named by the Aztecs who discovered Teotihuacan centuries after the original inhabitants and builders had left the area. Reflecting the shape of the hill directly behind it Cerro Gordo, the Pyramid of the Moon is the starting point, the northern landmark of this extensive urban layout and of the Avenue of the Dead.

Beautiful View of the Pyramid of the Moon. Note surrounding Pyramid/Platforms in the Plaza of the Moon and in the foreground, the main Plaza Alter dedicated to the Great Goddess.

While the second largest structure in the ancient city, the Pyramid of the Moon is elevated by the land at higher ground and is the highest point in the complex and commands its own royal audience in the plaza below. Twelve small pyramid platforms surround the Plaza of the Moon, large enough perhaps for thousands of the early residences to witness the sacrificial rituals played out from the Pyramid of Moon. In the center of the plaza is a singular bold altar.

The Pyramid of the Moon was the first large building in the City. Building commenced in the first century and like a Russian doll, the pyramid was covered again by another pyramid producing a larger structure for each of the seven stages. Human and animal sacrifices and other offerings have been discovered that seem to mark the commencement of a least three new stages.

Built between 1 and 350 AD through successive stages, the Pyramid grew to forty six meter (150 feet) high with a base of 168 meters (550 feet) square. A Pyramid structure at the south side provides a steep stairway up to the clouds.

The Pyramid of the Moon and Plaza were a primary religious and sacrificial center. The earliest human sacrifice appears to be around 200 AD. Tombs in the pyramid contain both animal and human sacrifice as well as grave objects made of obsidian and greenstone.

A tomb marking the fourth construction stage held a single male buried alive- wounded with his hands tied behind his back – and jaguar, wolf and puma skeletons and over 400 relics. It was dedicated to The Great Goddess, the ruler of water, earth, fertility and creation. The tomb marking the fifth stage of construction contains four human skeletons and other ritual offerings.

The Plaza of the Moon contains a central alter- also dedicated to the Great Goddess – and four rectangular spaces which form what is known as the Teotihuacan Cross. The space provided an excellent viewing area for religious and political rituals.

Human sacrifice was used to keep the social order and ensure that the ruling elite, the priests and holy men retained their grip on power. Many Mesoamerican cultures sacrificed their enemies that they captured in battle and brought them back to their city for the population to witness rather than merely kill them on a battlefield.

Climbing the Pyramid of the Moon is now limited to the five tiered platform attached to the front. The stairs are steeper than the Pyramid of the sun so you should be prepared for a strenuous climb.

Take water, camera and cell phone. The view is spectacular as you can see directly down the Avenue of the Dead past the Pyramid of the Sun and south to the Citadel.

Watch the video: Χρήστος Θηβαίος u0026 Γιάννης Χαρούλης - Ο Άμλετ της σελήνης @., 18052013 (August 2022).