The story

Summary - Eastern Antiquity - Mesopotamia

Summary - Eastern Antiquity - Mesopotamia



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Location

- Current Iraq
- Between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers

Characteristics

- High turnover in the domain;
- Between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers;
- Very fertile region;
- geographically not favorable;
- No natural protections;

Sumerians and Akkadians

- Sumerians settle in the Chaldean in 3500 BC;
- Several city-states governed by Patesi;
- cuneiform writing;
- Invasions and Academic Mastery (2300a.C.);
- Sargon I - 1st Mesopotamian king;
- Sequence of Invasions - Resurgence of the Sumerians;
- Amorite Invasions - 1st Mesopotamian Empire;

1st Mesopotamian Empire

- Babylon, new capital;
- Hammurabi - Hammurabi Code - Talion Law;
- Hittite and Cassite invasions;
- Assyrian invasions;

Assyrian Empire

- Famous for cruelty;
- Conquest of the Kingdom of Israel;
- Construction of the Ninive Library;
- Resumption of the Chaldeans and imposition of the 2nd Babylonian Empire;
2nd Babylonian Empire
- Nebuchadnezzar apogee;
- Hanging Gardens of Babylon;
- Babylonian captivity (Hebrews);
- Death of Nebuchadnezzar;
- decay;
- Taken by the Persians;

Economy and Society

- Agriculture (wheat and barley);
- Crafts and trade grew later;
- Absolute Theocratic Monarchy;
- Control of agricultural surplus by temples;
- Social pyramid composed by the king at the top, below the aristocracy composed by the priests and military, followed by the large mass of workers and some slaves.

Religion

- Almost complete descent from the Sumerians;
- Polytheists (nature-related deities);
- Legend of the Flood (god Marduk and Gilgames);
- Legend of Creation;
- immediate earthly rewards;
- They did not believe in life after death;

Science, Arts and Writing

- reputable scientific knowledge;
- Discovery of 5 planets;
- Circle division in 360 degrees;
- sexagesimal system;
- mathematical development;
- Detachable architecture (Ziggurats);
- Cuneiform Writing;
- Developed Literature;